Toelf Vocabulary

Group 9

accommodate, verb
be agreeable or acceptable to
make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose
provide with something desired or needed
Can you accommodate me with a rental car?

have room for; hold without crowding
This hotel can accommodate 250 guests

provide housing for

analogy, noun
an inference that if things agree in some respects they probably agree in others
drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect
the operation of a computer presents and interesting analogy to the working of the brain

the religious belief that between creature and creator no similarity can be found so great but that the dissimilarity is always greater; any analogy between God and humans will always be inadequate

anticipate, verb
regard something as probable or likely
act in advance of; deal with ahead of time
realize beforehand
make a prediction about; tell in advance
be excited or anxious about

assure, verb
make certain of
inform positively and with certainty and confidence
I tell you that man is a crook!

assure somebody of the truth of something with the intention of giving the listener confidence
I assured him that traveling to Cambodia was safe

be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something
cause to feel sure; give reassurance to

attain, verb
to gain with effort
reach a point in time, or a certain state or level
find unexpectedly
reach a destination, either real or abstract

behalf, noun
as the agent of or on someone’s part (usually expressed as
on behalf of

for someone’s benefit (usually expressed as `in behalf’ rather than `on behalf’ and usually with a possessive)
in your behalf

bulk, verb
stick out or up
The parcel bulked in the sack

cause to bulge or swell outwards

bulk, noun
the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part
the property of something that is great in magnitude
it is cheaper to buy it in bulk

the property possessed by a large mass

cease, verb
put an end to a state or an activity
have an end, in a temporal, spatial, or quantitative sense; either spatial or metaphorical

cease, noun
(`cease’ is a noun only in the phrase `without cease’) end

coherent, adj
marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts
a coherent argument

capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner
a lucid thinker

(physics) of waves having a constant phase relation
sticking together
two coherent sheets

coincide, verb
go with, fall together
happen simultaneously
be the same
our views on this matter coincided

commence, verb
take the first step or steps in carrying out an action
set in motion, cause to start
get off the ground

compatible, adj
able to exist and perform in harmonious or agreeable combination
a compatible married couple

capable of being used with or connected to other devices or components without modification
capable of forming a homogeneous mixture that neither separates nor is altered by chemical interaction

concurrent, adj
occurring or operating at the same time

confine, verb
place limits on (extent or access)
restrict or confine,
prevent from leaving or from being removed
close in; darkness enclosed him
deprive of freedom; take into confinement

controversy, noun
a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement
they were involved in a violent argument

converse, noun
a proposition obtained by conversion

converse, verb
carry on a conversation

converse, adj
of words so related that one reverses the relation denoted by the other
`parental’ and `filial’ are converse terms

turned about in order or relation
transposed letters

device, noun
an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose
the device is small enough to wear on your wrist

something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect
any clever maneuver
he would stoop to any device to win a point

any ornamental pattern or design (as in embroidery)
an emblematic design (especially in heraldry)
he was recognized by the device on his shield

devote, verb
give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause
set aside or apart for a specific purpose or use
this land was devoted to mining

diminish, verb
decrease in size, extent, or range
lessen the authority, dignity, or reputation of
don’t belittle your colleagues

distort, verb
make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message or story
form into a spiral shape
twist and press out of shape
affect as in thought or feeling
alter the shape of (something) by stress

duration, noun
the period of time during which something continues
the property of enduring or continuing in time
continuance in time
the ceremony was of short duration

erode, verb
become ground down or deteriorate
Her confidence eroded

remove soil or rock
Rain eroded the terraces

ethic, noun
the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group
the Puritan ethic

a system of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct

format, verb
set (printed matter) into a specific format
Format this letter so it can be printed out

determine the arrangement of (data) for storage and display (in computer science)
divide (a disk) into marked sectors so that it may store data
Please format this disk before entering data!

format, noun
the organization of information according to preset specifications (usually for computer processing)
the general appearance of a publication

found, noun
food and lodging provided in addition to money
they worked for $30 and found

found, verb
set up or found
set up or lay the groundwork for
use as a basis for; found on

found, adj
come upon unexpectedly or after searching
found art

inherent, adj
existing as an essential constituent or characteristic
in the nature of something though not readily apparent

insight, noun
clear or deep perception of a situation
a feeling of understanding
the clear (and often sudden) understanding of a complex situation
grasping the inner nature of things intuitively

integral, noun
the result of a mathematical integration; F(x) is the integral of f(x) if dF/dx = f(x)

integral, adj
existing as an essential constituent or characteristic
constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged
a local motion keepeth bodies integral

of or denoted by an integer

intermediate, noun
a substance formed during a chemical process before the desired product is obtained

intermediate, verb
act between parties with a view to reconciling differences

intermediate, adj
lying between two extremes in time or space or state
going from sitting to standing without intermediate pushes with the hands

around the middle of a scale of evaluation

manual, noun
a small handbook
(military) a prescribed drill in handling a rifle

manual, adj
of or relating to the hands
manual dexterity

requiring human effort
a manual transmission

doing or requiring physical work

mature, verb
develop and reach maturity; undergo maturation
He matured fast

develop and work out fully in one’s mind
I need to mature my thoughts

become due for repayment
These bonds mature in 2005

cause to ripen or develop fully
grow old or older

mature, adj
characteristic of maturity
mature for her age

fully considered and perfected
mature plans

having reached full natural growth or development
a mature cell

fully developed or matured and ready to be eaten or used
(of birds) having developed feathers or plumage; often used in combination

mediate, verb
act between parties with a view to reconciling differences
occupy an intermediate or middle position or form a connecting link or stage between two others
mediate between the old and the new

mediate, adj
acting through or dependent on an intervening agency
the disease spread by mediate as well as direct contact

being neither at the beginning nor at the end in a series

medium, noun
a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information
the surrounding environment
fish require an aqueous medium

an intervening substance through which signals can travel as a means for communication
(bacteriology) a nutrient substance (solid or liquid) that is used to cultivate micro-organisms
a liquid with which pigment is mixed by a painter

medium, adj
around the middle of a scale of evaluation
(meat) cooked until there is just a little pink meat inside

military, noun
the military forces of a nation
their military is the largest in the region

military, adj
of or relating to the study of the principles of warfare
military law

characteristic of or associated with soldiers or the military
military uniforms

associated with or performed by members of the armed services as contrasted with civilians
military police

minimal, adj
the least possible
needed to enforce minimal standards

mutual, adj
common to or shared by two or more parties
concerning each of two or more persons or things; especially given or done in return

norm, noun
a standard or model or pattern regarded as typical
the current middle-class norm of two children per family

a statistic describing the location of a distribution

overlap, verb
coincide partially or wholly
Our vacations overlap

extend over and cover a part of
The roofs of the houses overlap in this crowded city

overlap, noun
a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena
there was no overlap between their proposals

the property of partial coincidence in time
a flap that lies over another part

passive, noun
the voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the source) of the action denoted by the verb

passive, adj
lacking in energy or will
Much benevolence of the passive order may be traced to a disinclination to inflict pain upon oneself

peacefully resistant in response to injustice
passive resistance

expressing that the subject of the sentence is the patient of the action denoted by the verb
academics seem to favor passive sentences

portion, verb
give out

portion, noun
something determined in relation to something that includes it
something less than the whole of a human artifact
the allotment of some amount by dividing something
assets belonging to or due to or contributed by an individual person or group
your overall circumstances or condition in life (including everything that happens to you)

preliminary, noun
a minor match preceding the main event
something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows
training is a necessary preliminary to employment

preliminary, adj
denoting an action or event preceding or in preparation for something more important; designed to orient or acquaint with a situation before proceeding
a preliminary investigation

protocol, noun
(computer science) rules determining the format and transmission of data
forms of ceremony and etiquette observed by diplomats and heads of state
code of correct conduct
safety protocols

qualitative, adj
involving distinctions based on qualities
qualitative change

relating to or involving comparisons based on qualities

refine, verb
improve or perfect by pruning or polishing
make more complex, intricate, or richer
treat or prepare so as to put in a usable condition
refine paper stock

reduce to a fine, unmixed, or pure state; separate from extraneous matter or cleanse from impurities
refine sugar

attenuate or reduce in vigor, strength, or validity by polishing or purifying
many valuable nutrients are refined out of the foods in our modern diet

relax, verb
become less tense, rest, or take one’s ease
He relaxed in the hot tub

make less taut
relax the tension on the rope

become loose or looser or less tight
cause to feel relaxed
A hot bath always relaxes me

become less tense, less formal, or less restrained, and assume a friendlier manner
our new colleague relaxed when he saw that we were a friendly group

restrain, verb
keep under control; keep in check
suppress a smile

place limits on (extent or access)
to close within bounds, limit or hold back from movement
This holds the local until the express passengers change trains

hold back
to compel or deter by or as if by threats

revolution, noun
a drastic and far-reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving
the industrial revolution was also a cultural revolution

the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
a single complete turn (axial or orbital)

rigid, adj
incapable of or resistant to bending
a rigid strip of metal

incapable of compromise or flexibility
incapable of adapting or changing to meet circumstances
designating an airship or dirigible having a form maintained by a stiff unyielding frame or structure
fixed and unmoving

route, verb
send documents or materials to appropriate destinations
send via a specific route
divert in a specified direction
divert the low voltage to the engine cylinders

route, noun
an established line of travel or access
an open way (generally public) for travel or transportation

scenario, noun
an outline or synopsis of a play (or, by extension, of a literary work)
a setting for a work of art or literature
the scenario is France during the Reign of Terror

a postulated sequence of possible events
planners developed several scenarios in case of an attack

sphere, noun
a particular environment or walk of life
his social sphere is limited

any spherically shaped artifact
the geographical area in which one nation is very influential
a particular aspect of life or activity
a solid figure bounded by a spherical surface (including the space it encloses)

subordinate, noun
an assistant subject to the authority or control of another
a word that is more specific than a given word

subordinate, verb
rank or order as less important or consider of less value
Art is sometimes subordinated to Science in these schools

make subordinate, dependent, or subservient
Our wishes have to be subordinated to that of our ruler

subordinate, adj
lower in rank or importance
subject or submissive to authority or the control of another
a subordinate kingdom

(of a clause) unable to stand alone syntactically as a complete sentence

supplement, verb
add as a supplement to what seems insufficient
supplement your diet

serve as a supplement to
Vitamins supplemented his meager diet

add to the very end

supplement, noun
textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end
a quantity added (e.g. to make up for a deficiency)
a supplementary component that improves capability

suspend, verb
hang freely
The secret police suspended their victims from the ceiling and beat them

cause to be held in suspension in a fluid
suspend the particles

bar temporarily; from school, office, etc.
stop a process or a habit by imposing a freeze on it
make inoperative or stop
suspend payments on the loan

team, verb
form a team
We teamed up for this new project

team, noun
a cooperative unit (especially in sports)
two or more draft animals that work together to pull something

temporary, noun
a worker (especially in an office) hired on a temporary basis

temporary, adj
not permanent; not lasting
lacking continuity or regularity

trigger, verb
put in motion or move to act
release or pull the trigger on
Trigger a gun

trigger, noun
lever that activates the firing mechanism of a gun
a device that activates or releases or causes something to happen
an act that sets in motion some course of events

unify, verb
become one
Germany unified officially in 1990

to bring or combine together or with something else
bring together for a common purpose or action or ideology or in a shared situation
act in concert or unite in a common purpose or belief
join or combine

violate, verb
fail to agree with; be in violation of; as of rules or patterns
This sentence violates the rules of syntax

act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises
Don’t violate my garden

violate the sacred character of a place or language
force (someone) to have sex against their will

vision, noun
a vivid mental image
he had a vision of his own death

the ability to see; the visual faculty
the perceptual experience of seeing
the runners emerged from the trees into his clear vision

the formation of a mental image of something that is not perceived as real and is not present to the senses
a religious or mystical experience of a supernatural appearance
he had a vision of the Virgin Mary


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