Toelf Vocabulary

Group 7

adapt, verb
make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose
Adapt our native cuisine to the available food resources of the new country

adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions

adult, noun
a fully developed person from maturity onward
any mature animal

adult, adj
(of animals) fully developed
an adult animal

designed to arouse lust

advocate, verb
push for something
speak, plead, or argue in favor of

advocate, noun
a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea
a lawyer who pleads cases in court

aid, verb
give help or assistance; be of service
improve the condition of

aid, noun
a resource
visual aids in teaching

the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose
he gave me an assist with the housework

money to support a worthy person or cause
the work of providing treatment for or attending to someone or something

channel, verb
transmit or serve as the medium for transmission
direct the flow of
channel information towards a broad audience

send from one person or place to another

channel, noun
a path over which electrical signals can pass
a channel is typically what you rent from a telephone company

a passage for water (or other fluids) to flow through
the fields were crossed with irrigation channels

a long narrow furrow cut either by a natural process (such as erosion) or by a tool (as e.g. a groove in a phonograph record)
a deep and relatively narrow body of water (as in a river or a harbor or a strait linking two larger bodies) that allows the best passage for vessels
the ship went aground in the channel

(often plural) a means of communication or access
it must go through official channels

chemical, noun
material produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules

chemical, adj
relating to or used in chemistry
chemical engineer

of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes
chemical fertilizer

classic, noun
a creation of the highest excellence
an artist who has created classic works

classic, adj
of recognized authority or excellence
of or relating to the most highly developed stage of an earlier civilisation and its culture
of or pertaining to or characteristic of the ancient Greek and Roman cultures

comprehensive, noun
an intensive examination testing a student’s proficiency in some special field of knowledge

comprehensive, adj
including all or everything
comprehensive coverage

broad in scope
a comprehensive survey of world affairs

comprise, verb
be composed of
include or contain; have as a component
form or compose

confirm, verb
establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts
his story confirmed my doubts

strengthen or make more firm
The witnesses confirmed the victim’s account

make more firm
Confirm thy soul in self-control!

support a person for a position
The Senate confirmed the President’s candidate for Secretary of Defense

administer the rite of confirmation to
the children were confirmed in their mother’s faith

contrary, noun
a relation of direct opposition
exact opposition
public opinion to the contrary he is not guilty

a logical relation such that two propositions are contraries if both cannot be true but both can be false

contrary, adj
very opposed in nature or character or purpose
acts contrary to our code of ethics

of words or propositions so related that both cannot be true but both may be false
`hot’ and `cold’ are contrary terms

resistant to guidance or discipline
Mary Mary quite contrary

in an opposing direction

convert, verb
change from one system to another or to a new plan or policy
We converted from 220 to 110 Volt

change the nature, purpose, or function of something
convert lead into gold

change religious beliefs, or adopt a religious belief
She converted to Buddhism

exchange or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category
cause to adopt a new or different faith
The missionaries converted the Indian population

convert, noun
a person who has been converted to another religious or political belief

couple, verb
bring two objects, ideas, or people together
link together
can we couple these proposals?

form a pair or pairs
engage in sexual intercourse

couple, noun
a pair who associate with one another
the engaged couple

a pair of people who live together
a married couple from Chicago

a small indefinite number
he’s coming for a couple of days

two items of the same kind
(physics) something joined by two equal and opposite forces that act along parallel lines

decade, noun
a period of 10 years
the cardinal number that is the sum of nine and one; the base of the decimal system

definite, adj
precise; explicit and clearly defined
I want a definite answer

known for certain
it is definite that they have won

deny, verb
declare untrue; contradict
He denied the allegations

refuse to accept or believe
He denied his fatal illness

refuse to grant, as of a petition or request
The dean denied the students’ request for more physics courses

refuse to let have
She denies me every pleasure

deny oneself (something); restrain, especially from indulging in some pleasure
She denied herself wine and spirits

differentiate, verb
mark as different
be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense
calculate a derivative; take the derivative
become different during development
cells differentiate

evolve so as to lead to a new species or develop in a way most suited to the environment

dispose, verb
give, sell, or transfer to another
She disposed of her parents’ possessions

throw or cast away
make receptive or willing towards an action or attitude or belief
Their language inclines us to believe them

place or put in a particular order
the dots are unevenly disposed

make fit or prepared

dynamic, noun
an efficient incentive

dynamic, adj
characterized by action or forcefulness or force of personality
a dynamic market

of or relating to dynamics
(used of verbs (e.g. `to run’) and participial adjectives (e.g. `running’ in `running water’)) expressing action rather than a state of being

eliminate, verb
terminate, end, or take out
do away with
kill in large numbers
the plague wiped out an entire population

dismiss from consideration or a contest
eliminate from the body

empirical, adj
derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
an empirical basis for an ethical theory

relying on medical quackery

equip, verb
provide with (something) usually for a specific purpose
The expedition was equipped with proper clothing, food, and other necessities

provide with abilities or understanding
She was never equipped to be a dancer

extract, verb
remove, usually with some force or effort; also used in an abstract sense
pull weeds

get despite difficulties or obstacles
I extracted a promise from the Dean for two new positions

deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)
extract by the process of distillation
separate (a metal) from an ore

extract, noun
a solution obtained by steeping or soaking a substance (usually in water)
a passage selected from a larger work

file, verb
record in a public office or in a court of law
file for divorce

smooth with a file
file one’s fingernails

proceed in line
The students filed into the classroom

file a formal charge against
place in a container for keeping records
File these bills, please

file, noun
a set of related records (either written or electronic) kept together
a line of persons or things ranged one behind the other
office furniture consisting of a container for keeping papers in order
a steel hand tool with small sharp teeth on some or all of its surfaces; used for smoothing wood or metal

finite, adj
bounded or limited in magnitude or spatial or temporal extent
of verbs; relating to forms of the verb that are limited in time by a tense and (usually) show agreement with number and person

foundation, noun
the basis on which something is grounded
there is little foundation for his objections

an institution supported by an endowment
lowest support of a structure
it was built on a base of solid rock

education or instruction in the fundamentals of a field of knowledge
he lacks the foundation necessary for advanced study

the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained

globe, noun
the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on
an object with a spherical shape
a sphere on which a map (especially of the earth) is represented

grade, verb
assign a rank or rating to
level to the right gradient
assign a grade or rank to, according to one’s evaluation
grade tests

determine the grade of or assign a grade to

grade, noun
a body of students who are taught together
a relative position or degree of value in a graded group
lumber of the highest grade

the gradient of a slope or road or other surface
the road had a steep grade

one-hundredth of a right angle
a degree of ablaut

guarantee, verb
give surety or assume responsibility
I vouch for the quality of my products

make certain of
This nest egg will ensure a nice retirement for us

promise to do or accomplish
stand behind and guarantee the quality, accuracy, or condition of
The dealer warrants all the cars he sells

guarantee, noun
a written assurance that some product or service will be provided or will meet certain specifications
an unconditional commitment that something will happen or that something is true
there is no guarantee that they are not lying

a collateral agreement to answer for the debt of another in case that person defaults

hierarchy, noun
a series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system
put honesty first in her hierarchy of values

the organization of people at different ranks in an administrative body

identical, adj
exactly alike; incapable of being perceived as different
rows of identical houses

being the exact same one; not any other:
this is the identical room we stayed in before

(of twins) derived from a single egg or ovum
identical twins are monovular

having properties with uniform values along all axes
coinciding exactly when superimposed
identical triangles

ideology, noun
an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation
imaginary or visionary theorization

infer, verb
reason by deduction; establish by deduction
draw from specific cases for more general cases
conclude by reasoning; in logic
guess correctly; solve by guessing
believe to be the case

innovate, verb
bring something new to an environment

insert, verb
put or introduce into something
insert a picture into the text

Insert your ticket here

fit snugly into
insert casually

insert, noun
a folded section placed between the leaves of another publication
an artifact that is inserted or is to be inserted
(broadcasting) a local announcement inserted into a network program
(film) a still picture that is introduced and that interrupts the action of a film

intervene, verb
get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force
Why did the U.S. not intervene earlier in WW II?

be placed or located between other things or extend between spaces and events
This interludes intervenes between the two movements

occur between other event or between certain points of time
the war intervened between the birth of her two children

isolate, verb
place or set apart
They isolated the political prisoners from the other inmates

obtain in pure form
The chemist managed to isolate the compound

mode, noun
how something is done or how it happens
a particular functioning condition or arrangement
switched from keyboard to voice mode

a classification of propositions on the basis of whether they claim necessity or possibility or impossibility
verb inflections that express how the action or state is conceived by the speaker
any of various fixed orders of the various diatonic notes within an octave

paradigm, noun
systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word
a standard or typical example
the class of all items that can be substituted into the same position (or slot) in a grammatical sentence (are in paradigmatic relation with one another)
the generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time
he framed the problem within the psychoanalytic paradigm

phenomenon, noun
any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning
a remarkable development

priority, noun
status established in order of importance or urgency
preceding in time

prohibit, verb
command against

publication, noun
a copy of a printed work offered for distribution
the act of issuing printed materials
the communication of something to the public; making information generally known
the business of issuing printed matter for sale or distribution

quote, verb
repeat a passage from
He quoted the Bible to her

name the price of
quote prices for cars

refer to for illustration or proof
He said he could quote several instances of this behavior

put quote marks around
Here the author is quoting his colleague

quote, noun
a punctuation mark used to attribute the enclosed text to someone else
a passage or expression that is quoted or cited

release, verb
release, as from one’s grip
grant freedom to; free from confinement
let (something) fall or spill from a container
prepare and issue for public distribution or sale
eliminate (a substance)

release, noun
merchandise issued for sale or public showing (especially a record or film)
a new release from the London Symphony Orchestra

the act of liberating someone or something
a process that liberates or discharges something
there was a sudden release of oxygen

an announcement distributed to members of the press in order to supplement or replace an oral presentation
the termination of someone’s employment (leaving them free to depart)

reverse, noun
a relation of direct opposition
we thought Sue was older than Bill but just the reverse was true

the gears by which the motion of a machine can be reversed
an unfortunate happening that hinders or impedes; something that is thwarting or frustrating
the side of a coin or medal that does not bear the principal design
(American football) a running play in which a back running in one direction hands the ball to a back running in the opposite direction

reverse, verb
change to the contrary
turn inside out or upside down
rule against
cancel officially
reverse the position, order, relation, or condition of

reverse, adj
directed or moving toward the rear
of the transmission gear causing backward movement in a motor vehicle
in reverse gear

reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect

simulate, verb
reproduce someone’s behavior or looks
create a representation or model of
make a pretence of
She assumed indifference, even though she was seething with anger

sole, noun
the underside of footwear or a golf club
lean flesh of any of several flatfish
the underside of the foot
right-eyed flatfish; many are valued as food; most common in warm seas especially European

sole, verb
put a new sole on
sole the shoes

sole, adj
not divided or shared with others
being the only one; single and isolated from others

somewhat, adv
to a small degree or extent
to a moderately sufficient extent or degree

submit, verb
refer for judgment or consideration
The lawyers submitted the material to the court

put before
I submit to you that the accused is guilty

yield to the control of another
hand over formally
refer to another person for decision or judgment

successor, noun
a person who follows next in order
he was President Lincoln’s successor

a thing or person that immediately replaces something or someone
a person who inherits some title or office

survive, verb
continue to live through hardship or adversity
We went without water and food for 3 days

continue in existence after (an adversity, etc.)
He survived the cancer against all odds

support oneself
live longer than

thesis, noun
an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument
a treatise advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree

topic, noun
the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
some situation or event that is thought about
he kept drifting off the topic

transmit, verb
transfer to another
transmit or serve as the medium for transmission
broadcast over the airwaves, as in radio or television
send from one person or place to another
transmit a message

ultimate, noun
the finest or most superior quality of its kind
the ultimate in luxury

ultimate, adj
furthest or highest in degree or order; utmost or extreme
the ultimate achievement

being the last or concluding element of a series
the ultimate sonata of that opus

unique, adj
in single file
(followed by `to’) applying exclusively to a given category or condition or locality
the single one of its kind
highly unusual or rare but not the single instance
spoke with a unique accent

visible, adj
capable of being seen; or open to easy view
a visible object

obvious to the eye
a visible change of expression

present and easily available

voluntary, noun
(military) a person who freely enlists for service
composition (often improvised) for a solo instrument (especially solo organ) and not a regular part of a religious service or musical performance

voluntary, adj
of your own free will or design; done by choice; not forced or compelled
man is a voluntary agent

controlled by individual volition
voluntary motions


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