Toelf Vocabulary

Group 6

abstract, noun
a concept or idea not associated with any specific instance
a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory

abstract, verb
consider a concept without thinking of a specific example; consider abstractly or theoretically
make off with belongings of others
consider apart from a particular case or instance
Let’s abstract away from this particular example

give an abstract (of)

abstract, adj
existing only in the mind; separated from embodiment
abstract words like `truth’ and `justice’

not representing or imitating external reality or the objects of nature
a large abstract painting

dealing with a subject in the abstract without practical purpose or intention
abstract reasoning

accurate, adj
conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to a standard or performing with total accuracy
an accurate reproduction

(of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct
a precise image

acknowledge, verb
declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of
report the receipt of
The program committee acknowledged the submission of the authors of the paper

express recognition of the presence or existence of, or acquaintance with
express obligation, thanks, or gratitude for
We must acknowledge the kindness she showed towards us

accept as legally binding and valid
acknowledge the deed

aggregate, noun
the whole amount
material such as sand or gravel used with cement and water to make concrete, mortar, or plaster
a sum total of many heterogenous things taken together

aggregate, verb
amount in the aggregate to
gather in a mass, sum, or whole

aggregate, adj
formed of separate units gathered into a mass or whole
aggregate expenses include expenses of all divisions combined for the entire year

composed of a dense cluster of separate units such as carpels or florets or drupelets
raspberries are aggregate fruits

allocate, verb
distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose
I am allocating a loaf of bread to everyone on a daily basis

assign, verb
give an assignment to (a person) to a post, or assign a task to (a person)
give out
We were assigned new uniforms

attribute or credit to
select something or someone for a specific purpose
The teacher assigned him to lead his classmates in the exercise

attribute or give

attach, verb
cause to be attached
be attached; be in contact with
become attached
The spider’s thread attached to the window sill

create social or emotional ties
take temporary possession of as a security, by legal authority

author, verb
be the author of
She authored this play

author, noun
writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay)
someone who originates or causes or initiates something

bond, verb
stick to firmly
create social or emotional ties
issue bonds on
bring together in a common cause or emotion
The death of their child had drawn them together

bond, noun
an electrical force linking atoms
a certificate of debt (usually interest-bearing or discounted) that is issued by a government or corporation in order to raise money; the issuer is required to pay a fixed sum annually until maturity and then a fixed sum to repay the principal
a connection based on kinship or marriage or common interest
(criminal law) money that must be forfeited by the bondsman if an accused person fails to appear in court for trial
a restraint that confines or restricts freedom (especially something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner)

brief, noun
a document stating the facts and points of law of a client’s case
a condensed written summary or abstract

brief, verb
give essential information to someone
The reporters were briefed about the President’s plan to invade

brief, adj
of short duration or distance
a brief stay in the country

concise and succinct
covered the matter in a brief statement

(of clothing) very short

capable, adj
(usually followed by `of’) having capacity or ability
capable of winning

possibly accepting or permitting
a passage capable of misinterpretation

(followed by `of’) having the temperament or inclination for
no one believed her capable of murder

having the requisite qualities for
have the skills and qualifications to do things well

cite, verb
make reference to
commend
refer to
repeat a passage from
refer to for illustration or proof

cite, noun
a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage

cooperate, verb
work together on a common enterprise of project

discriminate, verb
recognize or perceive the difference
treat differently on the basis of sex or race
distinguish
I could not discriminate the different tastes in this complicated dish

discriminate, adj
marked by the ability to see or make fine distinctions
discriminate judgments

display, verb
to show, make visible or apparent
attract attention by displaying some body part or posing; of animals

display, noun
something intended to communicate a particular impression
made a display of strength

something shown to the public
the museum had many exhibits of oriental art

a visual representation of something
behavior that makes your feelings public
a display of emotion

exhibiting openly in public view
a display of courage

diverse, adj
many and different
distinctly dissimilar or unlike
celebrities as diverse as Bob Hope and Bob Dylan

domain, noun
a particular environment or walk of life
territory over which rule or control is exercised
his domain extended into Europe

(mathematics) the set of values of the independent variable for which a function is defined
people in general; especially a distinctive group of people with some shared interest
the content of a particular field of knowledge

edit, verb
prepare for publication or presentation by correcting, revising, or adapting
Edit a book on lexical semantics

supervise the publication of
The same family has been editing the influential newspaper for almost 100 years

cut and assemble the components of
edit film

cut or eliminate
she edited the juiciest scenes

enhance, verb
increase
This will enhance your enjoyment

make better or more attractive
This sauce will enhance the flavor of the meat

estate, noun
everything you own; all of your assets (whether real property or personal property) and liabilities
extensive landed property (especially in the country) retained by the owner for his own use
the family owned a large estate on Long Island

a major social class or order of persons regarded collectively as part of the body politic of the country (especially in the United Kingdom) and formerly possessing distinct political rights

exceed, verb
be greater in scope or size than some standard
Their loyalty exceeds their national bonds

be superior or better than some standard
She exceeded our expectations

be or do something to a greater degree

expert, noun
a person with special knowledge or ability who performs skillfully

expert, adj
having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude
of or relating to or requiring special knowledge to be understood

explicit, adj
precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication
explicit instructions

in accordance with fact or the primary meaning of a term

federal, noun
a member of the Union Army during the American Civil War
any federal law-enforcement officer

federal, adj
national; especially in reference to the government of the United States as distinct from that of its member units
the Federal Bureau of Investigation

of or relating to the central government of a federation
a federal district is one set aside as the seat of the national government

being of or having to do with the northern United States and those loyal to the Union during the American Civil War
characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities
a federal system like that of the United States

fee, verb
give a tip or gratuity to in return for a service, beyond the compensation agreed on

fee, noun
a fixed charge for a privilege or for professional services
an interest in land capable of being inherited

flexible, adj
capable of being changed
flexible schedules

able to flex; able to bend easily
slim flexible birches

able to adjust readily to different conditions
bending and snapping back readily without breaking
making or willing to make concessions

furthermore, adv
in addition
what is more, there’s no sign of a change

gender, noun
a grammatical category in inflected languages governing the agreement between nouns and pronouns and adjectives; in some languages it is quite arbitrary but in Indo-European languages it is usually based on sex or animateness
the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles

ignorance, noun
the lack of knowledge or education

incentive, noun
a positive motivational influence
an additional payment (or other remuneration) to employees as a means of increasing output

incidence, noun
the relative frequency of occurrence of something
the striking of a light beam on a surface
he measured the angle of incidence of the reflected light

incorporate, verb
make into a whole or make part of a whole
include or contain; have as a component
A totally new idea is comprised in this paper

form a corporation
unite or merge with something already in existence
incorporate this document with those pertaining to the same case

incorporate, adj
formed or united into a whole

index, verb
list in an index
provide with an index
index the book

adjust through indexation
The government indexes wages and prices

index, noun
a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number
a number or ratio (a value on a scale of measurement) derived from a series of observed facts; can reveal relative changes as a function of time
a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself
an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed
the finger next to the thumb

inhibit, verb
to put down by force or authority
limit the range or extent of
Contact between the young was inhibited by strict social customs

limit, block, or decrease the action or function of
inhibit the action of the enzyme

control and refrain from showing; of emotions, desires, impulses, or behavior

initiate, verb
bring into being
take the lead or initiative in; participate in the development of
This South African surgeon pioneered heart transplants

accept people into an exclusive society or group, usually with some rite
African men are initiated when they reach puberty

bring up a topic for discussion
set in motion, start an event or prepare the way for

initiate, noun
someone new to a field or activity
someone who has been admitted to membership in a scholarly field
people who have been introduced to the mysteries of some field or activity
it is very familiar to the initiate

input, verb
enter (data or a program) into a computer

input, noun
signal going into an electronic system
a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief or adds information
any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action
a component of production; something that goes into the production of output

instruct, verb
impart skills or knowledge to
give instructions or directions for some task
She instructed the students to work on their pronunciation

make aware of
Have the students been apprised of the tuition hike?

intelligence, noun
the ability to comprehend; to understand and profit from experience
a unit responsible for gathering and interpreting information about an enemy
secret information about an enemy (or potential enemy)
we sent out planes to gather intelligence on their radar coverage

information about recent and important events
the operation of gathering information about an enemy

interval, noun
a definite length of time marked off by two instants
a set containing all points (or all real numbers) between two given endpoints
the distance between things
fragile items require separation and cushioning

the difference in pitch between two notes

lecture, verb
deliver a lecture or talk
She will talk at Rutgers next week

censure severely or angrily

lecture, noun
a speech that is open to the public
he attended a lecture on telecommunications

a lengthy rebuke
a good lecture was my father’s idea of discipline

teaching by giving a discourse on some subject (typically to a class)

migrate, verb
move from one country or region to another and settle there
Many Germans migrated to South America in the mid-19th century

move periodically or seasonally
birds migrate in the Winter

minimum, noun
the smallest possible quantity
the point on a curve where the tangent changes from negative on the left to positive on the right

minimum, adj
the least possible

ministry, noun
religious ministers collectively (especially Presbyterian)
building where the business of a government department is transacted
a government department under the direction of a minister
the work of a minister of religion
he is studying for the ministry

motive, noun
the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior
a theme that is repeated or elaborated in a piece of music
a design or figure that consists of recurring shapes or colors, as in architecture or decoration

motive, adj
causing or able to cause motion
impelling to action

neutral, noun
one who does not side with any party in a war or dispute

neutral, adj
having no personal preference
having only a limited ability to react chemically; chemically inactive
not supporting or favoring either side in a war, dispute, or contest
possessing no distinctive quality or characteristics
having no hue

nevertheless, adv
despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

overseas, adv
beyond or across the sea
in a place across an ocean

overseas, adj
in a foreign country
being or passing over or across the sea

precede, verb
be earlier in time; go back further
come before
Most English adjectives precede the noun they modify

be the predecessor of
Bill preceded John in the long line of Susan’s husbands

move ahead (of others) in time or space
furnish with a preface or introduction
She always precedes her lectures with a joke

presume, verb
take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof
take upon oneself; act presumptuously, without permission
constitute reasonable evidence for
A restaurant bill presumes the consumption of food

take liberties or act with too much confidence

rational, noun
an integer or a fraction

rational, adj
consistent with or based on or using reason
rational behavior

of or associated with or requiring the use of the mind
capable of being expressed as a quotient of integers
rational numbers

having its source in or being guided by the intellect (as distinguished from experience or emotion)
a rational analysis

recover, verb
get or find back; recover the use of
She regained control of herself

get over an illness or shock
regain a former condition after a financial loss
We expect the stocks to recover to $2.90

regain or make up for
recuperate one’s losses

reuse (materials from waste products)

reveal, verb
make visible
make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret
disclose directly or through prophets
God rarely reveal his plans for Mankind

scope, noun
an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:
the range of a supersonic jet

the state of the environment in which a situation exists
a magnifier of images of distant objects
electronic equipment that provides visual images of varying electrical quantities

subsidy, noun
a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public
a subsidy for research in artificial intelligence

tape, verb
fasten or attach with tape
tape the shipping label to the box

record on videotape
register electronically

tape, noun
a long thin piece of cloth or paper as used for binding or fastening
he used a piece of tape for a belt

a recording made on magnetic tape
the several recordings were combined on a master tape

the finishing line for a foot race
he broke the tape in record time

measuring instrument consisting of a narrow strip (cloth or metal) marked in inches or centimeters and used for measuring lengths
the carpenter should have used his tape measure

memory device consisting of a long thin plastic strip coated with iron oxide; used to record audio or video signals or to store computer information

trace, verb
follow, discover, or ascertain the course of development of something
We must follow closely the economic development is Cuba

make a mark or lines on a surface
draw a line

to go back over again
we retraced the route we took last summer

pursue or chase relentlessly
discover traces of
She traced the circumstances of her birth

trace, noun
a just detectable amount
he speaks French with a trace of an accent

an indication that something has been present
there wasn’t a trace of evidence for the claim

a suggestion of some quality
a drawing created by superimposing a semitransparent sheet of paper on the original image and copying on it the lines of the original image
either of two lines that connect a horse’s harness to a wagon or other vehicle or to a whiffletree

transform, verb
subject to a mathematical transformation
change or alter in form, appearance, or nature
This experience transformed her completely

change in outward structure or looks
He transformed into a monster

change from one form or medium into another
convert (one form of energy) to another
transform energy to light

transport, verb
move something or somebody around; usually over long distances
move while supporting, either in a vehicle or in one’s hands or on one’s body
You must carry your camping gear

hold spellbound
transport commercially
send from one person or place to another

transport, noun
something that serves as a means of transportation
an exchange of molecules (and their kinetic energy and momentum) across the boundary between adjacent layers of a fluid or across cell membranes
the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials
a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion
a mechanism that transports magnetic tape across the read/write heads of a tape playback/recorder

underlie, verb
be or form the base for
lie underneath

utilise, verb
put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose

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