Toelf Vocabulary

Group 5

academy, noun
a secondary school (usually private)
an institution for the advancement of art or science or literature
a school for special training
a learned establishment for the advancement of knowledge

adjust, verb
alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard
Adjust the clock, please

place in a line or arrange so as to be parallel or straight
adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions
We must adjust to the bad economic situation

make correspondent or conformable
Adjust your eyes to the darkness

decide how much is to be paid on an insurance claim

alter, verb
cause to change; make different; cause a transformation
become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one’s or its former characteristics or essence
make an alteration to
This dress needs to be altered

insert words into texts, often falsifying it thereby
remove the ovaries of
Is your cat spayed?

amend, verb
make amendments to
amend the document

to make better
set straight or right

aware, adj
(sometimes followed by `of’) having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception
bearing in mind; attentive to

capacity, noun
capability to perform or produce
among his gifts is his capacity for true altruism

the susceptibility of something to a particular treatment
the amount that can be contained
the gas tank has a capacity of 12 gallons

the maximum production possible
the plant is working at 80 per cent capacity

a specified function
he was employed in the capacity of director

challenge, verb
take exception to
She challenged his claims

issue a challenge to
Fischer challenged Spassky to a match

ask for identification
The illegal immigrant was challenged by the border guard

raise a formal objection in a court of law

challenge, noun
a demanding or stimulating situation
they reacted irrationally to the challenge of Russian power

a call to engage in a contest or fight
questioning a statement and demanding an explanation
his challenge of the assumption that Japan is still our enemy

a formal objection to the selection of a particular person as a juror
a demand by a sentry for a password or identification

clause, noun
(grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence
a separate section of a legal document (as a statute or contract or will)

compound, noun
a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
an enclosure of residences and other building (especially in the Orient)

compound, verb
make more intense, stronger, or more marked
put or add together
combine resources

calculate principal and interest
create by mixing or combining
combine so as to form a whole; mix
compound the ingredients

compound, adj
composed of more than one part
compound flower heads

consisting of two or more substances or ingredients or elements or parts
soap is a compound substance

composed of many distinct individuals united to form a whole or colony

conflict, verb
be in conflict
The two proposals conflict!

go against, as of rules and laws
He ran afoul of the law

conflict, noun
an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals)
the harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph

opposition between two simultaneous but incompatible feelings
he was immobilized by conflict and indecision

a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war
a state of opposition between persons or ideas or interests
his conflict of interest made him ineligible for the post

an incompatibility of dates or events
he noticed a conflict in the dates of the two meetings

consult, verb
get or ask advice from
Consult your local broker

seek information from
You should consult the dictionary

have a conference in order to talk something over
advise professionally
The professor consults for industry

contact, verb
be in or establish communication with
be in direct physical contact with; make contact

contact, noun
close interaction
they kept in daily contact

the act of touching physically
her fingers came in contact with the light switch

the state or condition of touching or of being in immediate proximity
litmus paper turns red on contact with an acid

the physical coming together of two or more things
contact with the pier scraped paint from the hull

a person who is in a position to give you special assistance
he used his business contacts to get an introduction to the governor

decline, verb
grow worse
refuse to accept
show unwillingness towards
grow smaller
Interest in the project waned

go down
The roof declines here

decline, noun
change toward something smaller or lower
a condition inferior to an earlier condition; a gradual falling off from a better state
a gradual decrease; as of stored charge or current
a downward slope or bend

discrete, adj
constituting a separate entity or part
a government with three discrete divisions

draft, verb
draw up an outline or sketch for something
draft a speech

engage somebody to enter the army
make a blueprint of

draft, noun
a document ordering the payment of money; drawn by one person or bank on another
a current of air (usually coming into a chimney or room or vehicle)
a preliminary sketch of a design or picture
a serving of drink (usually alcoholic) drawn from a keg
they served beer on draft

any of the various versions in the development of a written work
a preliminary draft

enable, verb
render capable or able for some task
This skill will enable you to find a job on Wall Street

energy, noun
(physics) a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs
energy can take a wide variety of forms

forceful exertion
he plays tennis with great energy

enterprising or ambitious drive
Europeans often laugh at American energy

an imaginative lively style (especially style of writing)
his writing conveys great energy

a healthy capacity for vigorous activity
jogging works off my excess energy

enforce, verb
ensure observance of laws and rules
Apply the rules to everyone

compel to behave in a certain way
Social relations impose courtesy

entity, noun
draw air into, and expel out of, the lungs

equivalent, noun
a person or thing equal to another in value or measure or force or effect or significance etc
send two dollars or the equivalent in stamps

the atomic weight of an element that has the same combining capacity as a given weight of another element; the standard is 8 for oxygen

equivalent, adj
being essentially equal to something
it was as good as gold

evolve, verb
work out
We have developed a new theory of evolution

undergo development or evolution
Modern man evolved a long time ago

gain through experience

expand, verb
extend in one or more directions
The dough expands

become larger in size or volume or quantity
his business expanded rapidly

make bigger or wider in size, volume, or quantity
expand the house by adding another wing

grow vigorously
exaggerate or make bigger

expose, verb
expose or make accessible to some action or influence
Expose your students to art

make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret
to show, make visible or apparent
The Metropolitan Museum is exhibiting Goya’s works this month

remove all or part of one’s clothes to show one’s body
disclose to view as by removing a cover

expose, noun
the exposure of an impostor or a fraud
he published an expose of the graft and corruption in city government

external, noun
outward features
he enjoyed the solemn externals of religion

external, adj
happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface
the external auditory canal

coming from the outside
extraneous light in the camera spoiled the photograph

from or between other countries
external commerce

purely outward or superficial
external composure

facilitate, verb
make easier
you could facilitate the process by sharing your knowledge

be of use
increase the likelihood of (a response)
The stimulus facilitates a delayed impulse

fundamental, noun
any factor that could be considered important to the understanding of a particular business
fundamentals include a company’s growth, revenues, earnings, management, and capital structure

the lowest tone of a harmonic series

fundamental, adj
serving as an essential component
being or involving basic facts or principles
the fundamental laws of the universe

far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something
the fundamental revolution in human values that has occurred

generate, verb
bring into existence
The new manager generated a lot of problems

give or supply
produce (energy)
We can’t generate enough power for the entire city

make children

generation, noun
all the people living at the same time or of approximately the same age
group of genetically related organisms constituting a single step in the line of descent
the normal time between successive generations
they had to wait a generation for that prejudice to fade

a stage of technological development or innovation
the third generation of computers

a coming into being

image, verb
render visible, as by means of MRI
imagine; conceive of; see in one’s mind

image, noun
an iconic mental representation
her imagination forced images upon her too awful to contemplate

(Jungian psychology) a personal facade that one presents to the world
a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface
a standard or typical example
language used in a figurative or nonliteral sense

liberal, noun
a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties
a person who favors an economic theory of laissez-faire and self-regulating markets

liberal, adj
showing or characterized by broad-mindedness
having political or social views favoring reform and progress
tolerant of change; not bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy, or tradition
given or giving freely
not literal

licence, verb
authorize officially

licence, noun
excessive freedom; lack of due restraint
freedom to deviate deliberately from normally applicable rules or practices (especially in behavior or speech)
a legal document giving official permission to do something

logic, noun
the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference
reasoned and reasonable judgment
it made a certain kind of logic

the principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation
economic logic requires it

the system of operations performed by a computer that underlies the machine’s representation of logical operations
a system of reasoning

margin, noun
the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary
an amount beyond the minimum necessary
the margin of victory

the amount of collateral a customer deposits with a broker when borrowing from the broker to buy securities
(finance) the net sales minus the cost of goods and services sold
the blank space that surrounds the text on a page
he jotted a note in the margin

medical, noun
a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person

medical, adj
relating to the study or practice of medicine
the medical profession

requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery
medical treatment

of or belonging to Aesculapius or the healing art

mental, adj
involving the mind or an intellectual process
mental images of happy times

of or relating to the mind
mental powers

of or relating to the chin- or liplike structure in insects and certain mollusks
of or relating to the chin or median part of the lower jaw
affected by a disorder of the mind
a mental patient

modify, verb
make less severe or harsh or extreme
please modify this letter to make it more polite

add a modifier to a constituent
cause to change; make different; cause a transformation

monitor, verb
keep tabs on; keep an eye on; keep under surveillance
we are monitoring the air quality

check, track, or observe by means of a receiver

monitor, noun
someone who supervises (an examination)
someone who gives a warning so that a mistake can be avoided
an ironclad vessel built by Federal forces to do battle with the Merrimac
display produced by a device that takes signals and displays them on a television screen or a computer monitor
electronic equipment that is used to check the quality or content of electronic transmissions

network, verb
communicate with and within a group
You have to network if you want to get a good job

network, noun
an interconnected system of things or people
he owned a network of shops

(broadcasting) a communication system consisting of a group of broadcasting stations that all transmit the same programs
the networks compete to broadcast important sports events

an open fabric of string or rope or wire woven together at regular intervals
a system of intersecting lines or channels
a railroad network

(electronics) a system of interconnected electronic components or circuits

notion, noun
a vague idea in which some confidence is placed
a general inclusive concept
an odd or fanciful or capricious idea
the theatrical notion of disguise is associated with disaster in his stories

(usually plural) small personal articles or clothing or sewing items
buttons and needles are notions

objective, noun
the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable)
the lens or system of lenses in a telescope or microscope that is nearest the object being viewed

objective, adj
undistorted by emotion or personal bias; based on observable phenomena
an objective appraisal

serving as or indicating the object of a verb or of certain prepositions and used for certain other purposes
objective case

emphasizing or expressing things as perceived without distortion of personal feelings, insertion of fictional matter, or interpretation
objective art

belonging to immediate experience of actual things or events
objective benefits

orient, verb
be oriented
The weather vane points North

determine one’s position with reference to another point
We had to orient ourselves in the forest

cause to point
Orient the house towards the West

familiarize (someone) with new surroundings or circumstances
The dean of students tries to orient the freshmen

adjust to a specific need or market

orient, noun
the countries of Asia
the hemisphere that includes Eurasia and Africa and Australia

perspective, noun
a way of regarding situations or topics etc.
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer

precise, adj
sharply exact or accurate or delimited
a precise mind

(of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct

prime, noun
a number that has no factor but itself and 1
the period of greatest prosperity or productivity
the second canonical hour; about 6 a.m.
the time of maturity when power and vigor are greatest

prime, verb
insert a primer into (a gun, mine, or charge) preparatory to detonation or firing
prime a cannon

cover with a primer; apply a primer to
fill with priming liquid
prime a car engine

prime, adj
first in rank or degree
used of the first or originating agent
of superior grade
of or relating to or being an integer that cannot be factored into other integers
prime number

being at the best stage of development
our manhood’s prime vigor

psychology, noun
the science of mental life

pursue, verb
carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in
follow in or as if in pursuit
The police car pursued the suspected attacker

go in search of or hunt for
carry further or advance
Can you act on this matter soon?

ratio, noun
the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient)
the relation between things (or parts of things) with respect to their comparative quantity, magnitude, or degree

reject, verb
refuse to accept or acknowledge
I reject the idea of starting a war

refuse to accept
deem wrong or inappropriate
reject with contempt
She spurned his advances

resist immunologically the introduction of some foreign tissue or organ

reject, noun
the person or thing that is rejected or set aside as inferior in quality

revenue, noun
the entire amount of income before any deductions are made
government income due to taxation

stable, noun
a farm building for housing horses or other livestock

stable, verb
shelter in a stable
stable horses

stable, adj
resistant to change of position or condition
a stable ladder

firm and dependable; subject to little fluctuation
the economy is stable

not taking part readily in chemical change
maintaining equilibrium
showing little if any change

style, verb
designate by an identifying term
They styled their nation `The Confederate States’

make consistent with a certain fashion or style
Style my hair

make consistent with certain rules of style
style a manuscript

style, noun
how something is done or how it happens
a way of expressing something (in language or art or music etc.) that is characteristic of a particular person or group of people or period
a particular kind (as to appearance)
this style of shoe is in demand

the popular taste at a given time
(botany) the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma

substitute, noun
a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another
an athlete who plays only when a starter on the team is replaced
someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult)

substitute, verb
put in the place of another; switch seemingly equivalent items
the con artist replaced the original with a fake Rembrandt

be a substitute
The young teacher had to substitute for the sick colleague

act as a substitute
She stood in for the soprano who suffered from a cold

substitute, adj
capable of substituting in any of several positions on a team
serving or used in place of another
artificial and inferior

sustain, verb
lengthen or extend in duration or space
undergo (as of injuries and illnesses)
provide with nourishment
supply with necessities and support
She alone sustained her family

be the physical support of; carry the weight of

symbol, noun
an arbitrary sign (written or printed) that has acquired a conventional significance
something visible that by association or convention represents something else that is invisible
the eagle is a symbol of the United States

target, verb
intend (something) to move towards a certain goal
He aimed his fists towards his opponent’s face

target, noun
a reference point to shoot at
his arrow hit the mark

a person who is the aim of an attack (especially a victim of ridicule or exploitation) by some hostile person or influence
the location of the target that is to be hit
sports equipment consisting of an object set up for a marksman or archer to aim at
the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable)

transit, verb
make a passage or journey from one place to another
pass across (a sign or house of the zodiac) or pass across (the disk of a celestial body or the meridian of a place)
The comet will transit on September 11

revolve (the telescope of a surveying transit) about its horizontal transverse axis in order to reverse its direction
cause or enable to pass through
The canal will transit hundreds of ships every day

transit, noun
a surveying instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles, consisting of a small telescope mounted on a tripod
a facility consisting of the means and equipment necessary for the movement of passengers or goods
a journey usually by ship

trend, verb
turn sharply; change direction abruptly

trend, noun
a general direction in which something tends to move
general line of orientation
a general tendency to change (as of opinion)
the popular taste at a given time

version, noun
an interpretation of a matter from a particular viewpoint
his version of the fight was different from mine

something a little different from others of the same type
an experimental version of the night fighter

a written work (as a novel) that has been recast in a new form
a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language
a mental representation of the meaning or significance of something

welfare, noun
governmental provision of economic assistance to persons in need
something that aids or promotes well-being
a contented state of being happy and healthy and prosperous

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