Toelf Vocabulary

Group 4

access, verb
obtain or retrieve from a storage device; as of information on a computer
reach or gain access to
How does one access the attic in this house?

access, noun
the right to enter
the right to obtain or make use of or take advantage of something (as services or membership)
a way of entering or leaving
he took a wrong turn on the access to the bridge

a code (a series of characters or digits) that must be entered in some way (typed or dialed or spoken) to get the use of something (a telephone line or a computer or a local area network etc.)
(computer science) the operation of reading or writing stored information

adequate, adj
having the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task
she had adequate training

sufficient for the purpose
an adequate income

about average; acceptable
more than adequate as a secretary

annual, noun
(botany) a plant that completes its entire life cycle within the space of a year
a reference book that is published regularly once every year

annual, adj
completing its life cycle within a year
a border of annual flowering plants

occurring or payable every year
an annual trip to Paris

apparent, adj
clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment
the effects of the drought are apparent to anyone who sees the parched fields

appearing as such but not necessarily so

approximate, verb
be close or similar
Her results approximate my own

judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)

approximate, adj
not quite exact or correct
the approximate time was 10 o’clock

very close in resemblance
sketched in an approximate likeness

in a tempting seductive manner

attitude, noun
a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways
he had the attitude that work was fun

the arrangement of the body and its limbs
a theatrical pose created for effect
the actor struck just the right attitude

position of aircraft or spacecraft relative to a frame of reference (the horizon or direction of motion)

attribute, verb
attribute or credit to
decide as to where something belongs in a scheme

attribute, noun
a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished
an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of an entity

civil, adj
applying to ordinary citizens as contrasted with the military
civil authorities

not rude; marked by satisfactory (or especially minimal) adherence to social usages and sufficient but not noteworthy consideration for others
even if he didn’t like them he should have been civil

of or occurring within the state or between or among citizens of the state
civil affairs

of or relating to or befitting citizens as individuals
civil rights

(of divisions of time) legally recognized in ordinary affairs of life
the civil calendar

code, verb
attach a code to
Code the pieces with numbers so that you can identify them later

convert ordinary language into code
We should encode the message for security reasons

code, noun
a set of rules or principles or laws (especially written ones)
a coding system used for transmitting messages requiring brevity or secrecy
(computer science) the symbolic arrangement of data or instructions in a computer program or the set of such instructions

commit, verb
perform an act, usually with a negative connotation
give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause
cause to be admitted; of persons to an institution
After the second episode, she had to be committed

confer a trust upon
make an investment

communicate, verb
transmit information
Please communicate this message to all employees

transmit thoughts or feelings
He communicated his anxieties to the psychiatrist

transfer to another
join or connect
The rooms communicated

be in verbal contact; interchange information or ideas
He and his sons haven’t communicated for years

concentrate, verb
make denser, stronger, or purer
concentrate juice

direct one’s attention on something
Please focus on your studies and not on your hobbies

make central
make more concise
draw together or meet in one common center
These groups concentrate in the inner cities

concentrate, noun
the desired mineral that is left after impurities have been removed from mined ore
a concentrated form of a foodstuff; the bulk is reduced by removing water
a concentrated example of something
the concentrate of contemporary despair

confer, verb
have a conference in order to talk something over
We conferred about a plan of action

present
The university conferred a degree on its most famous former student, who never graduated

contrast, verb
put in opposition to show or emphasize differences
The middle school teacher contrasted her best student’s work with that of her weakest student

to show differences when compared; be different
the students contrast considerably in their artistic abilities

contrast, noun
the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared
in contrast to

the act of distinguishing by comparing differences
a conceptual separation or distinction
the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of very different colors
the range of optical density and tone on a photographic negative or print (or the extent to which adjacent areas on a television screen differ in brightness)

cycle, verb
cause to go through a recurring sequence
cycle the laundry in this washing program

pass through a cycle
This machine automatically cycles

ride a motorcycle
ride a bicycle
recur in repeating sequences

cycle, noun
an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs
the never-ending cycle of the seasons

a series of poems or songs on the same theme
Schubert’s song cycles

a periodically repeated sequence of events
a cycle of reprisal and retaliation

the unit of frequency; one hertz has a periodic interval of one second
a single complete execution of a periodically repeated phenomenon
a year constitutes a cycle of the seasons

debate, verb
argue with one another
We debated the question of abortion

think about carefully; weigh
discuss the pros and cons of an issue
have an argument about something

debate, noun
a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal
the formal presentation of a stated proposition and the opposition to it (usually followed by a vote)

despite, noun
lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike
contemptuous disregard
she wanted neither favor nor despite

dimension, verb
indicate the dimensions on
These techniques permit us to dimension the human heart

shape or form to required dimensions

dimension, noun
the magnitude of something in a particular direction (especially length or width or height)
a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished
one of three Cartesian coordinates that determine a position in space
magnitude or extent

domestic, noun
a servant who is paid to perform menial tasks around the household

domestic, adj
of concern to or concerning the internal affairs of a nation
domestic issues such as tax rate and highway construction

of or relating to the home
domestic servant

of or involving the home or family
domestic worries

converted or adapted to domestic use
domestic animals

produced in a particular country
domestic wine

emerge, verb
come out into view, as from concealment
Suddenly, the proprietor emerged from his office

come out of
become known or apparent
Some nice results emerged from the study

come up to the surface of or rise
He felt new emotions emerge

happen or occur as a result of something

error, noun
a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention
inadvertent incorrectness
a misconception resulting from incorrect information
(baseball) a failure of a defensive player to make an out when normal play would have sufficed
departure from what is ethically acceptable

ethnic, noun
a person who is a member of an ethnic group

ethnic, adj
denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built up by a group of people

goal, noun
the state of affairs that a plan is intended to achieve and that (when achieved) terminates behavior intended to achieve it
the ends justify the means

the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey)
game equipment consisting of the place toward which players of a game try to advance a ball or puck in order to score points
a successful attempt at scoring
the winning goal came with less than a minute left to play

grant, verb
let have
give as judged due or on the basis of merit
be willing to concede
allow to have
bestow, especially officially
grant a degree

grant, noun
any monetary aid
the act of providing a subsidy
(law) a transfer of property by deed of conveyance
Scottish painter; cousin of Lytton Strachey and member of the Bloomsbury Group (1885-1978)
United States actor (born in England) who was the elegant leading man in many films (1904-1986)

hence, adv
(used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result
from this place
get thee hence!

from this time
a year hence it will be forgotten

hypothesis, noun
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena
a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory

a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

implement, verb
apply in a manner consistent with its purpose or design
implement a procedure

ensure observance of laws and rules
pursue to a conclusion or bring to a successful issue

implement, noun
instrumentation (a piece of equipment or tool) used to effect an end

implicate, verb
bring into intimate and incriminating connection
He is implicated in the scheme to defraud the government

impose, involve, or imply as a necessary accompaniment or result

impose, verb
compel to behave in a certain way
impose something unpleasant
impose and collect

integrate, verb
make into a whole or make part of a whole
She incorporated his suggestions into her proposal

open (a place) to members of all races and ethnic groups
become one; become integrated
The students at this school integrate immediately, despite their different backgrounds

calculate the integral of; calculate by integration

internal, adj
happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface
internal organs

become closed
inside the country
located inward
innermost or essential

investigate, verb
investigate scientifically
Let’s investigate the syntax of Chinese

conduct an inquiry or investigation of
The district attorney’s office investigated reports of possible irregularities

job, verb
profit privately from public office and official business
arranged for contracted work to be done by others
work occasionally
As a student I jobbed during the semester breaks

invest at a risk

job, noun
the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money
a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee
estimates of the city’s loss on that job ranged as high as a million dollars

a workplace; as in the expression
on the job

an object worked on; a result produced by working
he held the job in his left hand and worked on it with his right

the responsibility to do something
it is their job to print the truth

label, verb
assign a label to; designate with a label
These students were labelled `learning disabled’

attach a tag or label to
pronounce judgment on
distinguish (as a compound or molecule) by introducing a labeled atom
distinguish (an element or atom) by using a radioactive isotope or an isotope of unusual mass for tracing through chemical reactions

label, noun
a brief description given for purposes of identification
the label Modern is applied to many different kinds of architecture

trade name of a company that produces musical recordings
the artists and repertoire department of a recording label is responsible for finding new talent

a radioactive isotope that is used in a compound in order to trace the mechanism of a chemical reaction
an identifying or descriptive marker that is attached to an object

mechanism, noun
the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction
he determined unique mechanisms for the photochemical reactions

the technical aspects of doing something
a mechanism of social control

a natural object resembling a machine in structure or function
the mechanism of the ear

(philosophy) the philosophical theory that all phenomena can be explained in terms of physical or biological causes
device consisting of a piece of machinery; has moving parts that perform some function

obvious, adj
easily perceived by the senses or grasped by the mind
obvious errors

occupy, verb
keep busy with
live (in a certain place)
She resides in Princeton

occupy the whole of
The liquid fills the container

be on the mind of
march aggressively into another’s territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and occupation

option, noun
the right to buy or sell property at an agreed price; the right is purchased and if it is not exercised by a stated date the money is forfeited
one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen
what option did I have?

the act of choosing or selecting

output, verb
to create or manufacture a specific amount
the computer is outputting the data from the job I’m running

output, noun
final product; the things produced
production of a certain amount
signal that comes out of an electronic system
the quantity of something (as a commodity) that is created (usually within a given period of time)
production was up in the second quarter

what is produced in a given time period

overall, noun
(usually plural) work clothing consisting of denim trousers (usually with a bib and shoulder straps)
a loose protective coverall or smock worn over ordinary clothing for dirty work

overall, adj
involving only main features
the overall pattern of his life

including everything
the overall cost

parallel, noun
something having the property of being analogous to something else
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
(mathematics) one of a set of parallel geometric figures (parallel lines or planes)
parallels never meet

parallel, verb
be parallel to
Their roles are paralleled by ours

make or place parallel to something
They paralleled the ditch to the highway

duplicate or match

parallel, adj
being everywhere equidistant and not intersecting
parallel lines never converge

of or relating to the simultaneous performance of multiple operations
parallel processing

parameter, noun
a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied to yield a family of similar curves
any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance
(computer science) a reference or value that is passed to a function, procedure, subroutine, command, or program
a quantity (such as the mean or variance) that characterizes a statistical population and that can be estimated by calculations from sample data

phase, verb
arrange in phases or stages
phase a withdrawal

adjust so as to be in a synchronized condition
he phased the intake with the output of the machine

phase, noun
any distinct time period in a sequence of events
we are in a transitional stage in which many former ideas must be revised or rejected

(physical chemistry) a distinct state of matter in a system; matter that is identical in chemical composition and physical state and separated from other material by the phase boundary
the reaction occurs in the liquid phase of the system

a particular point in the time of a cycle; measured from some arbitrary zero and expressed as an angle
(astronomy) the particular appearance of a body’s state of illumination (especially one of the recurring shapes of the part of Earth’s moon that is illuminated by the sun)
the full phase of the moon

predict, verb
make a prediction about; tell in advance
Call the outcome of an election

indicate by signs

principal, noun
the original amount of a debt on which interest is calculated
the educator who has executive authority for a school
she sent unruly pupils to see the principal

an actor who plays a principal role
capital as contrasted with the income derived from it
(criminal law) any person involved in a criminal offense, regardless of whether the person profits from such involvement

principal, adj
most important element

prior, noun
the head of a religious order; in an abbey the prior is next below the abbot

prior, adj
earlier in time

professional, noun
a person engaged in one of the learned professions
an athlete who plays for pay
an authority qualified to teach apprentices

professional, adj
engaged in a profession or engaging in as a profession or means of livelihood
the professional man or woman possesses distinctive qualifications

of or relating to or suitable as a profession
professional organizations

characteristic of or befitting a profession or one engaged in a profession
professional conduct

of or relating to a profession
we need professional advice

engaged in by members of a profession
professional occupations include medicine and the law and teaching

project, verb
communicate vividly
He projected his feelings

extend out or project in space
transfer (ideas or principles) from one domain into another
project on a screen
The images are projected onto the screen

cause to be heard
His voice projects well

project, noun
any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
a planned undertaking

promote, verb
contribute to the progress or growth of
I am promoting the use of computers in the classroom

give a promotion to or assign to a higher position
John was kicked upstairs when a replacement was hired

make publicity for; try to sell (a product)
be changed for a superior chess or checker piece
change a pawn for a better piece by advancing it to the eighth row, or change a checker piece for a more valuable piece by moving it to the row closest to your opponent

regime, noun
the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit
(medicine) a systematic plan for therapy (often including diet)

resolve, verb
bring to an end; settle conclusively
reach a conclusion after a discussion or deliberation
reach a decision
understand the meaning of
make clearly visible
can this image be resolved?

resolve, noun
the trait of being resolute
a formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote

retain, verb
hold back within
This soil retains water

allow to remain in a place or position or maintain a property or feature
We cannot continue several servants any longer

secure and keep for possible future use or application
The landlord retained the security deposit

keep in one’s mind
I cannot retain so much information

series, noun
similar things placed in order or happening one after another
they were investigating a series of bank robberies

a serialized set of programs
a periodical that appears at scheduled times
(sports) several contests played successively by the same teams
the visiting team swept the series

(electronics) connection of components in such a manner that current flows first through one and then through the other
the voltage divider consisted of a series of fixed resistors

statistic, noun
a datum that can be represented numerically

status, noun
the relative position or standing of things or especially persons in a society
he had the status of a minor

a state at a particular time

stress, verb
to stress, single out as important
Dr. Jones emphasizes exercise in addition to a change in diet

put stress on; utter with an accent
In Farsi, you accent the last syllable of each word

test the limits of

stress, noun
the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch)
he put the stress on the wrong syllable

(psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense
special emphasis attached to something
the stress was more on accuracy than on speed

difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension
she endured the stresses and strains of life

(physics) force that produces strain on a physical body
the intensity of stress is expressed in units of force divided by units of area

subsequent, adj
following in time or order
subsequent developments

sum, verb
be a summary of
determine the sum of

sum, noun
a quantity of money
he borrowed a large sum

a quantity obtained by the addition of a group of numbers
the final aggregate
the sum of all our troubles did not equal the misery they suffered

the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience
the whole amount

summary, noun
a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form
he gave a summary of the conclusions

summary, adj
performed speedily and without formality
briefly giving the gist of something

undertake, verb
enter upon an activity or enterprise
accept as a challenge
I’ll tackle this difficult task

promise to do or accomplish
guarantee to free the prisoners

enter into a contractual arrangement
accept as a charge

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