Toelf Vocabulary

Group 3

alternative, noun
one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen

alternative, adj
serving or used in place of another
necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities
alternative possibilities were neutrality or war

pertaining to unconventional choices
an alternative life style

circumstance, noun
a condition that accompanies or influences some event or activity
the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event
information that should be kept in mind when making a decision
another consideration is the time it would take

formal ceremony about important occasions
pomp and circumstance

comment, verb
make or write a comment on
he commented the paper of his colleague

explain or interpret something
provide interlinear explanations for words or phrases

comment, noun
a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief or adds information
a written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material
he wrote an extended comment on the proposal

a report (often malicious) about the behavior of other people

compensate, verb
adjust for
engineers will work to correct the effects or air resistance

make amends for; pay compensation for
One can never fully repair the suffering and losses of the Jews in the Third Reich

make up for shortcomings or a feeling of inferiority by exaggerating good qualities
make reparations or amends for
do or give something to somebody in return

component, noun
an abstract part of something
jealousy was a component of his character

something determined in relation to something that includes it
an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system
spare components for cars

consent, verb
give an affirmative reply to; respond favorably to

consent, noun
permission to do something
he indicated his consent

considerable, adj
large or relatively large in number or amount or extent or degree
a considerable quantity

constant, noun
a quantity that does not vary
a number representing a quantity assumed to have a fixed value in a specified mathematical context
the velocity of light is a constant

constant, adj
unvarying in nature
steadfast in purpose or devotion or affection
a man constant in adherence to his ideals

uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing

constrain, verb
hold back
restrict

contribute, verb
bestow a quality on
contribute to some cause
I gave at the office

be conducive to
The use of computers in the classroom lead to better writing

provide

convene, verb
meet formally
The council convened last week

call together

coordinate, noun
a number that identifies a position relative to an axis

coordinate, verb
bring order and organization to
bring into common action, movement, or condition
coordinate the painters, masons, and plumbers

be co-ordinated
These activities coordinate well

bring (components or parts) into proper or desirable coordination correlation

coordinate, adj
of equal importance, rank, or degree

core, verb
remove the core or center from
core an apple

core, noun
a small group of indispensable persons or things
five periodicals make up the core of their publishing program

the center of an object
the ball has a titanium core

the central part of the Earth
the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience
a cylindrical sample of soil or rock obtained with a hollow drill

corporate, adj
of or belonging to a corporation
corporate rates

possessing or existing in bodily form
done by or characteristic of individuals acting together
a joint identity

organized and maintained as a legal corporation
a special agency set up in corporate form

correspond, verb
be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics
be equivalent or parallel, in mathematics
exchange messages
My Russian pen pal and I have been corresponding for several years

take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to

deduce, verb
reason by deduction; establish by deduction
conclude by reasoning; in logic

demonstrate, verb
give an exhibition of to an interested audience
establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment
provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one’s behavior, attitude, or external attributes
march in protest; take part in a demonstration
Thousands demonstrated against globalization during the meeting of the most powerful economic nations in Seattle

document, verb
record in detail
The parents documented every step of their child’s development

support or supply with references
Can you document your claims?

document, noun
writing that provides information (especially information of an official nature)
anything serving as a representation of a person’s thinking by means of symbolic marks
a written account of ownership or obligation
(computer science) a computer file that contains text (and possibly formatting instructions) using seven-bit ASCII characters

dominate, verb
be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance
be in control
Her husband completely dominates her

have dominance or the power to defeat over
Her pain completely mastered her

be greater in significance than
look down on
The villa dominates the town

emphasis, noun
special importance or significance
the red light gave the central figure increased emphasis

intensity or forcefulness of expression
special and significant stress by means of position or repetition e.g.
the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch)

ensure, verb
make certain of
be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something

exclude, verb
prevent from being included or considered or accepted
The bad results were excluded from the report

prevent from entering; shut out
The trees were shutting out all sunlight

lack or fail to include
The cost for the trip excludes food and beverages

prevent from entering; keep out
put out or expel from a place

framework, noun
a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process
the underlying structure
providing a factual framework for future research

a structure supporting or containing something

fund, verb
convert (short-term floating debt) into long-term debt that bears fixed interest and is represented by bonds
place or store up in a fund for accumulation
provide a fund for the redemption of principal or payment of interest
invest money in government securities
accumulate a fund for the discharge of a recurrent liability
fund a medical care plan

fund, noun
a reserve of money set aside for some purpose
a supply of something available for future use
a financial institution that sells shares to individuals and invests in securities issued by other companies

illustrate, verb
clarify by giving an example of
depict with an illustration
supply with illustrations
illustrate a book with drawings

immigrate, verb
migrate to a new environment
only few plants can immigrate to the island

introduce or send as immigrants
Britain immigrated many colonists to America

come into a new country and change residency
Many people immigrated at the beginning of the 20th century

imply, verb
express or state indirectly
suggest as a logically necessary consequence; in logic
have as a logical consequence
suggest that someone is guilty
have as a necessary feature
This decision involves many changes

initial, noun
the first letter of a word (especially a person’s name)
he refused to put the initials FRS after his name

initial, verb
mark with one’s initials

initial, adj
occurring at the beginning
took the initial step toward reconciliation

instance, verb
clarify by giving an example of

instance, noun
an occurrence of something
an item of information that is typical of a class or group

interact, verb
act together or towards others or with others
He should interact more with his colleagues

justify, verb
show to be reasonable or provide adequate ground for
The emergency does not warrant all of us buying guns

show to be right by providing justification or proof
vindicate a claim

defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning
let off the hook
adjust the spaces between words
justify the margins

layer, verb
make or form a layer
layer the different colored sands

layer, noun
single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance
slices of hard-boiled egg on a bed of spinach

a relatively thin sheetlike expanse or region lying over or under another
an abstract place usually conceived as having depth
a hen that lays eggs
thin structure composed of a single thickness of cells

link, verb
make a logical or causal connection
connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces
be or become joined or united or linked
link with or as with a yoke

link, noun
the means of connection between things linked in series
a fastener that serves to join or connect
the walls are held together with metal links placed in the wet mortar during construction

the state of being connected
a connecting shape
a unit of length equal to 1/100 of a chain

locate, verb
discover the location of; determine the place of; find by searching or examining
Can you locate your cousins in the Midwest?

determine or indicate the place, site, or limits of, as if by an instrument or by a survey
assign a location to
The company located some of their agents in Los Angeles

take up residence and become established

maximise, verb
make the most of
make as big or large as possible

minor, noun
a young person of either sex

minor, adj
of lesser importance or stature or rank
a minor poet

lesser in scope or effect
had minor differences

inferior in number or size or amount
a minor share of the profits

of a scale or mode
the minor keys

not of legal age
minor children

negate, verb
be in contradiction with
deny the truth of
prove negative; show to be false
make ineffective by counterbalancing the effect of

outcome, noun
something that results
a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon

partner, verb
provide with a partner
act as a partner
Astaire partnered Rogers

partner, noun
a person’s partner in marriage
an associate in an activity or endeavor or sphere of common interest
a person who is a member of a partnership

philosophy, noun
a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics
any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation
self-indulgence was his only philosophy

physical, adj
involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit
physical exercise

relating to the sciences dealing with matter and energy; especially physics
physical sciences

having substance or material existence; perceptible to the senses
a physical manifestation

according with material things or natural laws (other than those peculiar to living matter)
a reflex response to physical stimuli

characterized by energetic bodily activity
a very physical dance performance

proportion, verb
give pleasant proportions to
harmonize a building with those surrounding it

adjust in size relative to other things

proportion, noun
the quotient obtained when the magnitude of a part is divided by the magnitude of the whole
magnitude or extent
a building of vast proportions

balance among the parts of something
the relation between things (or parts of things) with respect to their comparative quantity, magnitude, or degree
an inordinate proportion of the book is given over to quotations

harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a design)
in all perfectly beautiful objects there is found the opposition of one part to another and a reciprocal balance

publish, verb
put into print
prepare and issue for public distribution or sale
publish a magazine or newspaper

have (one’s written work) issued for publication
How many books did Georges Simenon write?

react, verb
show a response or a reaction to something
act against or in opposition to
She reacts negatively to everything I say

undergo a chemical reaction; react with another substance under certain conditions
The hydrogen and the oxygen react

register, verb
record in writing; enter into a book of names or events or transactions
record in a public office or in a court of law
enroll to vote
register for an election

be aware of
indicate a certain reading; of gauges and instruments

register, noun
an official written record of names or events or transactions
(music) the timbre that is characteristic of a certain range and manner of production of the human voice or of different pipe organ stops or of different musical instruments
a book in which names and transactions are listed
(computer science) memory device that is the part of computer memory that has a specific address and that is used to hold information of a specific kind
an air passage (usually in the floor or a wall of a room) for admitting or excluding heated air from the room

rely, verb
have confidence or faith in

remove, verb
remove something concrete, as by lifting, pushing, or taking off, or remove something abstract
remove a threat

remove, noun
degree of figurative distance or separation
just one remove from madness

scheme, verb
form intrigues (for) in an underhand manner

scheme, noun
an elaborate and systematic plan of action

sequence, verb
determine the order of constituents in
They sequenced the human genome

sequence, noun
serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern
the sequence of names was alphabetical

sex, verb
stimulate sexually
tell the sex (of young chickens)

sex, noun
either of the two categories (male or female) into which most organisms are divided
the war between the sexes

shift, verb
make a shift in or exchange of
change place or direction
Shift one’s position

move around
move very slightly
move from one setting or context to another
shift the emphasis

shift, noun
an event in which something is displaced without rotation

specify, verb
decide upon or fix definitely
fix the variables

sufficient, adj
of a quantity that can fulfill a need or requirement but without being abundant
sufficient food

task, verb
assign a task to
I tasked him with looking after the children

task, noun
any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted

technical, noun
a pickup truck with a gun mounted on it
(basketball) a foul that can be assessed on a player or a coach or a team for unsportsmanlike conduct; does not usually involve physical contact during play

technical, adj
of or relating to technique or proficiency in a practical skill
his technical innovation was his brushwork

technique, noun
a practical method or art applied to some particular task

technology, noun
the practical application of science to commerce or industry

valid, adj
well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force
a valid argument

volume, noun
the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object
the gas expanded to twice its original volume

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