Toelf Vocabulary

Group 2

achieve, verb
to gain with effort
she achieved her goal despite setbacks

acquire, verb
come into the possession of something concrete or abstract
take on a certain form, attribute, or aspect
come to have or undergo a change of (physical features and attributes)
locate (a moving entity) by means of a tracking system such as radar
win something through one’s efforts
I acquired a passing knowledge of Chinese

administrate, verb
work in an administrative capacity; supervise or be in charge of

affect, verb
have an effect upon
Will the new rules affect me?

act physically on; have an effect upon
the medicine affects my heart rate

connect closely and often incriminatingly
make believe with the intent to deceive
have an emotional or cognitive impact upon
This child impressed me as unusually mature

affect, noun
the conscious subjective aspect of feeling or emotion

appropriate, verb
give or assign a resource to a particular person or cause
take possession of by force, as after an invasion
the invaders seized the land and property of the inhabitants

appropriate, adj
suitable for a particular person or place or condition etc
a book not appropriate for children

aspect, noun
a distinct feature or element in a problem
he studied every facet of the question

a characteristic to be considered
the visual percept of a region
the beginning or duration or completion or repetition of the action of a verb
the feelings expressed on a person’s face

assist, verb
give help or assistance; be of service
act as an assistant in a subordinate or supportive function
work for or be a servant to

assist, noun
the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose
(sports) the act of enabling another player to make a good play

category, noun
a collection of things sharing a common attribute
a general concept that marks divisions or coordinations in a conceptual scheme

chapter, noun
a subdivision of a written work; usually numbered and titled
he read a chapter every night before falling asleep

any distinct period in history or in a person’s life
the industrial revolution opened a new chapter in British history

a local branch of some fraternity or association
he joined the Atlanta chapter

an ecclesiastical assembly of the monks in a monastery or even of the canons of a church
a series of related events forming an episode
a chapter of disasters

commission, verb
put into commission; equip for service; of ships
place an order for
charge with a task

commission, noun
a special group delegated to consider some matter
a fee for services rendered based on a percentage of an amount received or collected or agreed to be paid (as distinguished from a salary)
he works on commission

the act of granting authority to undertake certain functions
the state of being in good working order and ready for operation
put the ships into commission

a group of representatives or delegates

community, noun
a group of people living in a particular local area
the team is drawn from all parts of the community

common ownership
they shared a community of possessions

a group of nations having common interests
they hoped to join the NATO community

agreement as to goals
the preachers and the bootleggers found they had a community of interests

a district where people live; occupied primarily by private residences

complex, noun
a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts
the complex of shopping malls, houses, and roads created a new town

a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated
(psychoanalysis) a combination of emotions and impulses that have been rejected from awareness but still influence a person’s behavior
a whole structure (as a building) made up of interconnected or related structures

complex, adj
complicated in structure; consisting of interconnected parts
a complex set of variations based on a simple folk melody

compute, verb
make a mathematical calculation or computation

conclude, verb
decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion
bring to a close
The committee concluded the meeting

reach a conclusion after a discussion or deliberation
come to a close
The concert closed with a nocturne by Chopin

reach agreement on
They concluded an economic agreement

conduct, verb
direct the course of; manage or control
You cannot conduct business like this

lead, as in the performance of a composition
behave in a certain manner
take somebody somewhere
transmit or serve as the medium for transmission

conduct, noun
manner of acting or controlling yourself
(behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people

consequent, adj
following or accompanying as a consequence

construct, verb
make by combining materials and parts
this little pig made his house out of straw

put together out of artificial or natural components or parts
draw with suitable instruments and under specified conditions
construct an equilateral triangle

create by linking linguistic units
construct a sentence

create by organizing and linking ideas, arguments, or concepts
construct a proof

construct, noun
an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances

consume, verb
eat immoderately
serve oneself to, or consume regularly
Have another bowl of chicken soup!

spend extravagantly
waste not, want not

destroy completely
The fire consumed the building

use up (resources or materials)
this car consumes a lot of gas

credit, verb
give someone credit for something
We credited her for saving our jobs

ascribe an achievement to
accounting: enter as credit
We credit your account with $100

have trust in; trust in the truth or veracity of

credit, noun
approval
money available for a client to borrow
an accounting entry acknowledging income or capital items
used in the phrase `to your credit’ in order to indicate an achievement deserving praise
she already had several performances to her credit

arrangement for deferred payment for goods and services

culture, verb
grow in a special preparation
the biologist grows microorganisms

culture, noun
a particular society at a particular time and place
early Mayan civilization

the tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group
all the knowledge and values shared by a society
(biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar)
the culture of cells in a Petri dish

a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality

design, verb
make or work out a plan for; devise
plan something for a specific role or purpose or effect
This room is not designed for work

create the design for; create or execute in an artistic or highly skilled manner
Chanel designed the famous suit

make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form
design a better mousetrap

create designs
Dupont designs for the house of Chanel

design, noun
the act of working out the form of something (as by making a sketch or outline or plan)
he contributed to the design of a new instrument

an arrangement scheme
the awkward design of the keyboard made operation difficult

something intended as a guide for making something else
a decorative or artistic work
the coach had a design on the doors

an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions

distinct, adj
(often followed by `from’) not alike; different in nature or quality
plants of several distinct types

easy to perceive; especially clearly outlined
a distinct flavor

constituting a separate entity or part
recognizable; marked
noticed a distinct improvement

clearly or sharply defined to the mind

element, noun
an abstract part of something
an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system
any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
the most favorable environment for a plant or animal
water is the element of fishes

one of four substances thought in ancient and medieval cosmology to constitute the physical universe
the alchemists believed that there were four elements

equate, verb
consider or describe as similar, equal, or analogous
be equivalent or parallel, in mathematics
make equal, uniform, corresponding, or matching

evaluate, verb
evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of
form a critical opinion of
I cannot judge some works of modern art

feature, verb
have as a feature
wear or display in an ostentatious or proud manner

feature, noun
a prominent attribute or aspect of something
the map showed roads and other features

the characteristic parts of a person’s face: eyes and nose and mouth and chin
an expression of pleasure crossed his features

the principal (full-length) film in a program at a movie theater
the feature tonight is `Casablanca’

a special or prominent article in a newspaper or magazine
they ran a feature on retirement planning

(linguistics) a distinctive characteristic of a linguistic unit that serves to distinguish it from other units of the same kind

final, noun
the final match between the winners of all previous matches in an elimination tournament
an examination administered at the end of an academic term

final, adj
occurring at or forming an end or termination
conclusive in a process or progression
the final answer

not to be altered or undone
the judge’s decision is final

focus, verb
direct one’s attention on something
cause to converge on or toward a central point
Focus the light on this image

bring into focus or alignment; to converge or cause to converge; of ideas or emotions
become focussed or come into focus
The light focused

put (an image) into focus

focus, noun
the concentration of attention or energy on something
the focus of activity shifted to molecular biology

maximum clarity or distinctness of an image rendered by an optical system
in focus

maximum clarity or distinctness of an idea
the controversy brought clearly into focus an important difference of opinion

a central point or locus of an infection in an organism
the focus of infection

special emphasis attached to something

impact, verb
press or wedge together; pack together
have an effect upon

impact, noun
the striking of one body against another
a forceful consequence; a strong effect
the book had an important impact on my thinking

influencing strongly
the violent interaction of individuals or groups entering into combat

injure, verb
cause injuries or bodily harm to
hurt the feelings of
cause damage or affect negatively

institute, verb
set up or lay the groundwork for
advance or set forth in court
bring charges

institute, noun
an association organized to promote art or science or education

invest, verb
make an investment
Put money into bonds

give qualities or abilities to
furnish with power or authority; of kings or emperors
provide with power and authority
They vested the council with special rights

place ceremoniously or formally in an office or position

item, adv
(used when listing or enumerating items) also
a length of chain, item a hook

item, noun
a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group of things that could be enumerated on a list
he noticed an item in the New York Times

a small part that can be considered separately from the whole
a whole individual unit; especially when included in a list or collection
they reduced the price on many items

an isolated fact that is considered separately from the whole
an individual instance of a type of symbol

journal, noun
a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations
a periodical dedicated to a particular subject
he reads the medical journals

a ledger in which transactions have been recorded as they occurred
a record book as a physical object
the part of the axle contained by a bearing

maintain, verb
keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g.,
keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction
supply with necessities and support
state categorically
have and exercise

normal, noun
something regarded as a normative example

normal, adj
conforming with or constituting a norm or standard or level or type or social norm; not abnormal
serve wine at normal room temperature

in accordance with scientific laws
being approximately average or within certain limits in e.g. intelligence and development
a perfectly normal child

forming a right angle

obtain, verb
come into possession of
How did you obtain the visa?

receive a specified treatment (abstract)
be valid, applicable, or true

participate, verb
share in something
become a participant; be involved in

perceive, verb
to become aware of through the senses
I could perceive the ship coming over the horizon

become conscious of
She finally perceived the futility of her protest

positive, noun
the primary form of an adjective or adverb; denotes a quality without qualification, comparison, or relation to increase or diminution
a film showing a photographic image whose tones correspond to those of the original subject

positive, adj
characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.
a positive attitude

persuaded of; very sure
involving advantage or good
indicating existence or presence of a suspected condition or pathogen
a positive pregnancy test

formally laid down or imposed
positive laws

potential, noun
the inherent capacity for coming into being
the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts

potential, adj
existing in possibility
a potential problem

expected to become or be; in prospect

previous, adj
just preceding something else in time or order
(used especially of persons) of the immediate past
too soon or too hasty

primary, noun
a preliminary election where delegates or nominees are chosen
one of the main flight feathers projecting along the outer edge of a bird’s wing
(astronomy) a celestial body (especially a star) relative to other objects in orbit around it
coil forming the part of an electrical circuit such that changing current in it induces a current in a neighboring circuit

primary, adj
of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondary
primary goals

not derived from or reducible to something else; basic
a primary instinct

most important element
of or being the essential or basic part
of primary importance

purchase, verb
obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction

purchase, noun
the acquisition of something for payment
they closed the purchase with a handshake

something acquired by purchase
a means of exerting influence or gaining advantage
he could get no purchase on the situation

the mechanical advantage gained by being in a position to use a lever

range, verb
change or be different within limits
Estimates for the losses in the earthquake range as high as $2 billion

move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment
have a range; be capable of projecting over a certain distance, as of a gun
This gun ranges over two miles

range or extend over; occupy a certain area
The plants straddle the entire state

lay out orderly or logically in a line or as if in a line
lay out the clothes

range, noun
an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:
the limits within which something can be effective
range of motion

a large tract of grassy open land on which livestock can graze
they used to drive the cattle across the open range every spring

a series of hills or mountains
the valley was between two ranges of hills

a place for shooting (firing or driving) projectiles of various kinds
the army maintains a missile range in the desert

region, noun
the extended spatial location of something
the farming regions of France

a part of an animal that has a special function or is supplied by a given artery or nerve
a large indefinite location on the surface of the Earth
penguins inhabit the polar regions

the approximate amount of something (usually used prepositionally as in `in the region of’)
it was going to take in the region of two or three months to finish the job

a knowledge domain that you are interested in or are communicating about
it was a limited realm of discourse

regulate, verb
fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of
regulate the temperature

bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations
We cannot regulate the way people dress

shape or influence; give direction to
check the emission of (sound)

relevant, adj
having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
the scientist corresponds with colleagues in order to learn about matters relevant to her own research

reside, verb
make one’s home in a particular place or community
may parents reside in Florida

live (in a certain place)
be inherent or innate in;

resource, noun
available source of wealth; a new or reserve supply that can be drawn upon when needed
a source of aid or support that may be drawn upon when needed
the local library is a valuable resource

the ability to deal resourcefully with unusual problems
a man of resource

restrict, verb
place restrictions on
curtail drinking in school

place under restrictions; limit access to
This substance is controlled

place limits on (extent or access)
restrict the use of this parking lot

make more specific

secure, verb
get by special effort
cause to be firmly attached
assure payment of
make certain of
fill or close tightly with or as if with a plug

secure, adj
free from fear or doubt; easy in mind
he was secure that nothing will be held against him

free from danger or risk
secure from harm

not likely to fail or give way
the lock was secure

immune to attack; incapable of being tampered with
financially sound

seek, verb
try to get or reach
seek a position

try to locate or discover, or try to establish the existence of
make an effort or attempt
go to or towards
a liquid seeks its own level

inquire for
seek directions from a local

seek, noun
the movement of a read/write head to a specific data track on a disk

select, verb
pick out, select, or choose from a number of alternatives

select, adj
of superior grade
selected or chosen for special qualifications

site, verb
assign a location to

site, noun
the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located)
a good site for the school

physical position in relation to the surroundings
the sites are determined by highly specific sequences of nucleotides

a computer connected to the internet that maintains a series of web pages on the World Wide Web

strategy, noun
an elaborate and systematic plan of action
the branch of military science dealing with military command and the planning and conduct of a war

survey, verb
consider in a comprehensive way
He appraised the situation carefully before acting

look over carefully or inspect
He surveyed his new classmates

keep under surveillance
hold a review (of troops)
make a survey of; for statistical purposes

survey, noun
a detailed critical inspection
short descriptive summary (of events)
the act of looking or seeing or observing

text, noun
the words of something written
there were more than a thousand words of text

a passage from the Bible that is used as the subject of a sermon
the preacher chose a text from Psalms to introduce his sermon

a book prepared for use in schools or colleges
the main body of a written work (as distinct from illustrations or footnotes etc.)
pictures made the text easier to understand

tradition, noun
an inherited pattern of thought or action
a specific practice of long standing

transfer, verb
transfer somebody to a different position or location of work
move from one place to another
transfer the data

lift and reset in another soil or situation
move around
transfer the packet from his trouser pockets to a pocket in his jacket

cause to change ownership
I transferred my stock holdings to my children

transfer, noun
the act of moving something from one location to another
someone who transfers or is transferred from one position to another
the best student was a transfer from LSU

the act of transfering something from one form to another
the transfer of the music from record to tape suppressed much of the background noise

a ticket that allows a passenger to change conveyances
application of a skill learned in one situation to a different but similar situation

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