Toelf Vocabulary

Group 1

analyse, verb
consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning
break down into components or essential features
make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break down into components or essential features
subject to psychoanalytic treatment

approach, verb
move towards
We were approaching our destination

come near or verge on, resemble, come nearer in quality, or character
begin to deal with
come near in time
Winter is approaching

make advances to someone, usually with a proposal or suggestion
I was approached by the President to serve as his adviser in foreign matters

approach, noun
ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem or situation
his approach to every problem is to draw up a list of pros and cons

the act of drawing spatially closer to something
the hunter’s approach scattered the geese

a way of entering or leaving
the final path followed by an aircraft as it is landing
the event of one object coming closer to another

area, noun
a particular geographical region of indefinite boundary (usually serving some special purpose or distinguished by its people or culture or geography)
it was a mountainous area

a subject of study
it was his area of specialization

a part of an animal that has a special function or is supplied by a given artery or nerve
in the abdominal region

a particular environment or walk of life
a part of a structure having some specific characteristic or function
the spacious cooking area provided plenty of room for servants

assess, verb
evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of
charge (a person or a property) with a payment, such as a tax or a fine
set or determine the amount of (a payment such as a fine)
estimate the value of (property) for taxation
Our house hasn’t been assessed in years

assume, verb
take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof
I assume his train was late

take on titles, offices, duties, responsibilities
When will the new President assume office?

take on a certain form, attribute, or aspect
His voice took on a sad tone

take on as one’s own the expenses or debts of another person
occupy or take on
He assumes the lotus position

authority, noun
the power or right to give orders or make decisions
he has the authority to issue warrants

(usually plural) persons who exercise (administrative) control over others
the authorities have issued a curfew

an expert whose views are taken as definitive
he is an authority on corporate law

freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities
an administrative unit of government

available, adj
obtainable or accessible and ready for use or service
kept a fire extinguisher available

not busy; not otherwise committed
he was not available for comment

convenient for use or disposal
the house is available after July 1

benefit, verb
derive a benefit from
be beneficial for
This will do you good

benefit, noun
financial assistance in time of need
something that aids or promotes well-being
for the benefit of all

a performance to raise money for a charitable cause

concept, noun
an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances

consist, verb
originate (in)
have its essential character; be comprised or contained in; be embodied in
The payment consists in food

be consistent in form, tenor, or character; be congruous
Desires are to be satisfied only so far as consists with an approved end

be composed of
The land he conquered comprised several provinces

constitute, verb
form or compose
This money is my only income

create and charge with a task or function
to compose or represent:
set up or lay the groundwork for

context, noun
discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation
the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event
the historical context

contract, verb
enter into a contractual arrangement
engage by written agreement
squeeze or press together
be stricken by an illness, fall victim to an illness
He got AIDS

become smaller or draw together

contract, noun
a binding agreement between two or more persons that is enforceable by law
(contract bridge) the highest bid becomes the contract setting the number of tricks that the bidder must make
a variety of bridge in which the bidder receives points toward game only for the number of tricks he bid

create, verb
make or cause to be or to become
bring into existence
The company was created 25 years ago

pursue a creative activity; be engaged in a creative activity
Don’t disturb him–he is creating

invest with a new title, office, or rank
Create one a peer

create by artistic means
create a poem

data, noun
a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
statistical data

define, verb
determine the essential quality of
give a definition for the meaning of a word
Define `sadness’

determine the nature of
What defines a good wine?

show the form or outline of
The tree was clearly defined by the light

decide upon or fix definitely

derive, verb
reason by deduction; establish by deduction
obtain
derive pleasure from one’s garden

come from
The present name derives from an older form

develop or evolve from a latent or potential state
come from; be connected by a relationship of blood, for example
She was descended from an old Italian noble family

distribute, verb
administer or bestow, as in small portions
administer critical remarks to everyone present

distribute or disperse widely
make available
The publisher wants to distribute the book in Asia

give to several people
The teacher handed out the exams

cause be distributed

economy, noun
the system of production and distribution and consumption
the efficient use of resources
economy of effort

frugality in the expenditure of money or resources
the Scots are famous for their economy

an act of economizing; reduction in cost
it was a small economy to walk to work every day

environment, noun
the totality of surrounding conditions
he longed for the comfortable environment of his living room

the area in which something exists or lives
the country–the flat agricultural surround

establish, verb
set up or found
She set up a literacy program

set up or lay the groundwork for
establish a new department

establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment
institute, enact, or establish
bring about
The trompe l’oeil-illusion establishes depth

estimate, verb
judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)
I estimate this chicken to weigh three pounds

judge to be probable

estimate, noun
an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth
an estimate of what it would cost

a judgment of the qualities of something or somebody
many factors are involved in any estimate of human life

a document appraising the value of something (as for insurance or taxation)
a statement indicating the likely cost of some job
he got an estimate from the car repair shop

the respect with which a person is held
they had a high estimation of his ability

evident, adj
clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment
capable of being seen or noticed

export, verb
sell or transfer abroad
we export less than we import and have a negative trade balance

transfer (electronic data) out of a database or document in a format that can be used by other programs
cause to spread in another part of the world
The Russians exported Marxism to Africa

export, noun
commodities (goods or services) sold to a foreign country

factor, verb
resolve into factors
a quantum computer can factor the number 15

be a contributing factor
make things factor into a company’s profitability

consider as relevant when making a decision
You must factor in the recent developments

factor, noun
anything that contributes causally to a result
a number of factors determined the outcome

an abstract part of something
one of two or more integers that can be exactly divided into another integer
a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission
any of the numbers (or symbols) that form a product when multiplied together

finance, verb
obtain or provide money for
Can we finance the addition to our home?

sell or provide on credit

finance, noun
the commercial activity of providing funds and capital
the branch of economics that studies the management of money and other assets
the management of money and credit and banking and investments

formula, noun
a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement
directions for making something
a conventionalized statement expressing some fundamental principle
a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements
something regarded as a normative example

function, verb
perform as expected when applied
The washing machine won’t go unless it’s plugged in

serve a purpose, role, or function
perform duties attached to a particular office or place or function

function, noun
(mathematics) a mathematical relation such that each element of a given set (the domain of the function) is associated with an element of another set (the range of the function)
what something is used for
the function of an auger is to bore holes

the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group
the function of a teacher

a relation such that one thing is dependent on another
height is a function of age

a formal or official social gathering or ceremony
it was a black-tie function

identify, verb
recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something
She identified the man on the ‘wanted’ poster

give the name or identifying characteristics of; refer to by name or some other identifying characteristic property
consider (oneself) as similar to somebody else
He identified with the refugees

conceive of as united or associated
Sex activity is closely identified with the hypothalamus

identify as in botany or biology, for example

income, noun
the financial gain (earned or unearned) accruing over a given period of time

indicate, verb
be a signal for or a symptom of
indicate a place, direction, person, or thing; either spatially or figuratively
I showed the customer the glove section

to state or express briefly
indicated his wishes in a letter

give evidence of
suggest the necessity of an intervention; in medicine
Tetracycline is indicated in such cases

individual, noun
a human being
a single organism

individual, adj
being or characteristic of a single thing or person
individual drops of rain

separate and distinct from others of the same kind
mark the individual pages

characteristic of or meant for a single person or thing
an individual serving

concerning one person exclusively

interpret, verb
make sense of; assign a meaning to
What message do you see in this letter?

give an interpretation or explanation to
give an interpretation or rendition of
The pianist rendered the Beethoven sonata beautifully

create an image or likeness of
restate (words) from one language into another language

involve, verb
connect closely and often incriminatingly
This new ruling affects your business

engage as a participant
Don’t involve me in your family affairs!

have as a necessary feature
require as useful, just, or proper
contain as a part
Dinner at Joe’s always involves at least six courses

issue, verb
prepare and issue for public distribution or sale
circulate or distribute or equip with
issue a new uniform to the children

bring out an official document (such as a warrant)
come out of
Water issued from the hole in the wall

make out and issue

issue, noun
an important question that is in dispute and must be settled
the issue could be settled by requiring public education for everyone

one of a series published periodically
she found an old issue of the magazine in her dentist’s waiting room

some situation or event that is thought about
the act of providing an item for general use or for official purposes (usually in quantity)
a new issue of stamps

supplies (as food or clothing or ammunition) issued by the government

labour, verb
work hard
strive and make an effort to reach a goal
undergo the efforts of childbirth

labour, noun
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child
a political party formed in Great Britain in 1900; characterized by the promotion of labor’s interests and formerly the socialization of key industries
productive work (especially physical work done for wages)

legal, adj
established by or founded upon law or official or accepted rules
of or relating to jurisprudence
legal loophole

having legal efficacy or force
a sound title to the property

relating to or characteristic of the profession of law
the legal profession

allowed by official rules
a legal pass receiver

legislate, verb
make laws, bills, etc. or bring into effect by legislation
They passed the amendment

major, noun
a commissioned military officer in the United States Army or Air Force or Marines; below lieutenant colonel and above captain
British statesman who was prime minister from 1990 until 1997 (born in 1943)
a university student who is studying a particular field as the principal subject
she is a linguistics major

the principal field of study of a student at a university
her major is linguistics

major, verb
have as one’s principal field of study
She is majoring in linguistics

major, adj
of greater importance or stature or rank
a major artist

greater in scope or effect
a major contribution

greater in number or size or amount
a major portion (a majority) of the population

of the field of academic study in which one concentrates or specializes
his major field was mathematics

of a scale or mode
major scales

method, noun
a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps)
an acting technique introduced by Stanislavsky in which the actor recalls emotions or reactions from his or her own life and uses them to identify with the character being portrayed

occur, verb
come to pass
come to one’s mind; suggest itself
It occurred to me that we should hire another secretary

to be found to exist
sexism occurs in many workplaces

percent, noun
a proportion in relation to a whole (which is usually the amount per hundred)

period, noun
an amount of time
the interval taken to complete one cycle of a regularly repeating phenomenon
(ice hockey) one of three divisions into which play is divided in hockey games
a unit of geological time during which a system of rocks formed
ganoid fishes swarmed during the earlier geological periods

the end or completion of something
death put a period to his endeavors

policy, noun
a plan of action adopted by an individual or social group
it was a policy of retribution

a line of argument rationalizing the course of action of a government
they debated the policy or impolicy of the proposed legislation

written contract or certificate of insurance
you should have read the small print on your policy

principle, noun
a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct
their principles of composition characterized all their works

a rule or standard especially of good behavior
a man of principle

a basic truth or law or assumption
the principles of democracy

a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system
the principle of the conservation of mass

rule of personal conduct

proceed, verb
continue talking
move ahead; travel onward in time or space
We proceeded towards Washington

follow a procedure or take a course
follow a certain course
The inauguration went well

continue a certain state, condition, or activity

process, verb
subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition
process cheese

deal with in a routine way
I’ll handle that one

perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information
The results of the elections were still being processed when he gave his acceptance speech

institute legal proceedings against; file a suit against
march in a procession

process, noun
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
(psychology) the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents
the process of thinking

a writ issued by authority of law; usually compels the defendant’s attendance in a civil suit; failure to appear results in a default judgment against the defendant
a mental process that you are not directly aware of
the process of denial

a natural prolongation or projection from a part of an organism either animal or plant
a bony process

require, verb
require as useful, just, or proper
consider obligatory; request and expect
make someone do something
have need of

research, verb
attempt to find out in a systematically and scientific manner
The student researched the history of that word

inquire into
the students had to research the history of the Second World War for their history project

research, noun
systematic investigation to establish facts
a search for knowledge

respond, verb
show a response or a reaction to something
react verbally
respond favorably or as hoped
The cancer responded to the aggressive therapy

role, noun
the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group
an actor’s portrayal of someone in a play
what something is used for
normal or customary activity of a person in a particular social setting
what is your role on the team?

section, verb
divide into segments

section, noun
a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical)
he always turns first to the business section

a very thin slice (of tissue or mineral or other substance) for examination under a microscope
sections from the left ventricle showed diseased tissue

a distinct region or subdivision of a territorial or political area or community or group of people
no section of the nation is more ardent than the South

one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object
a section of a fishing rod

a small team of policemen working as part of a police platoon

sector, noun
a plane figure bounded by two radii and the included arc of a circle
a social group that forms part of the society or the economy
the public sector

a particular aspect of life or activity
he was helpless in an important sector of his life

the minimum track length that can be assigned to store information; unless otherwise specified a sector of data consists of 512 bytes
a portion of a military position

significant, adj
important in effect or meaning
a significant change in tax laws

fairly large
won by a substantial margin

too closely correlated to be attributed to chance and therefore indicating a systematic relation
the interaction effect is significant at the .01 level

rich in significance or implication

similar, adj
marked by correspondence or resemblance
similar food at similar prices

having the same or similar characteristics
resembling or similar; having the same or some of the same characteristics; often used in combination
(of words) expressing closely related meanings
capable of replacing or changing places with something else; permitting mutual substitution without loss of function or suitability

source, verb
get (a product) from another country or business
She sourced a supply of carpet

specify the origin of
The writer carefully sourced her report

source, noun
the place where something begins, where it springs into being
a document (or organization) from which information is obtained
the reporter had two sources for the story

anything that provides inspiration for later work
a facility where something is available
a person who supplies information

specific, noun
a fact about some part (as opposed to general)
a medicine that has a mitigating effect on a specific disease
quinine is a specific for malaria

specific, adj
(sometimes followed by `to’) applying to or characterized by or distinguishing something particular or special or unique
rules with specific application

stated explicitly or in detail
needed a specific amount

relating to or distinguishing or constituting a taxonomic species
specific characters

being or affecting a disease produced by a particular microorganism or condition; used also of stains or dyes used in making microscope slides
quinine is highly specific for malaria

structure, verb
give a structure to
I need to structure my days

structure, noun
a thing constructed; a complex entity constructed of many parts
the structure consisted of a series of arches

the manner of construction of something and the arrangement of its parts
artists must study the structure of the human body

the complex composition of knowledge as elements and their combinations
his lectures have no structure

a particular complex anatomical part of a living thing
he has good bone structure

the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships

theory, noun
a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena
theories can incorporate facts and laws and tested hypotheses

a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena
a belief that can guide behavior
the architect has a theory that more is less

vary, verb
become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one’s or its former characteristics or essence
be at variance with; be out of line with
be subject to change in accordance with a variable
Prices vary

make something more diverse and varied
Vary the menu

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